Week 5 Team Problem

Due 9:30 pm on Sunday (24 hour since I post the assignment )

Resource: Principles of Managerial Finance, Ch. 16

Complete the following case study: Integrative Case Casa Diseno p. 681 .( Chapter 16)

Only complete the YELLOW  HIGHLIGHTED AREA. ONLY DO the probelm highlighted in question D

I have copied and paste chapter 16 and highlighted my part of the assignment. remember it’s a team assignment.

 16 Current Liabilities ManagementLearning GoalsLG 1 Review accounts payable, the key components of credit terms, and the procedures for analyzing those terms. LG 2 Understand the effects of stretching accounts payable on their cost and the use of accruals. LG 3 Describe interest rates and the basic types of unsecured bank sources of short-term loans. LG 4 Discuss the basic features of commercial paper and the key aspects of international short-term loans. LG 5 Explain the characteristics of secured short-term loans and the use of accounts receivable as short-term-loan collateral. LG 6 Describe the various ways in which inventory can be used as short-term-loan collateral. Why This Chapter Matters to You

In your professional life

ACCOUNTING You need to understand how to analyze supplier credit terms to decide whether the firm should take or give up cash discounts; you also need to understand the various types of short-term loans, both unsecured and secured, that you will be required to record and report.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS You need to understand what data the firm will need to process accounts payable, track accruals, and meet bank loans and other short-term debt obligations in a timely manner.

MANAGEMENT You need to know the sources of short-term loans so that, if short-term financing is needed, you will understand its availability and cost.

MARKETING You need to understand how accounts receivable and inventory can be used as loan collateral; the procedures used by the firm to secure short-term loans with such collateral could affect customer relationships.

OPERATIONS You need to understand the use of accounts payable as a form of short-term financing and the effect on one’s suppliers of stretching payables; you also need to understand the process by which a firm uses inventory as collateral.

In your personal life

Management of current liabilities is an important part of your financial strategy. It takes discipline to avoid viewing cash and credit purchases equally. You need to borrow for a purpose, not convenience. You need to repay credit purchases in a timely fashion. Excessive use of short-term credit, particularly with credit cards, can create personal liquidity problems and, at the extreme, personal bankruptcy.FastPay Getting Cash into the Hands of Online Media Companies

Digital advertising revenues hit $36.6 billion in 2012, a 15 percent increase over 2011, which was itself a record-breaking year. Online ads are everywhere, from Google search pages to YouTube videos to your Facebook News Feed. A challenge for the publishers of online ads is collecting money for those ads. The industry standard calls for publishers of online ads to send invoices within 30 days after an ad campaign is complete, and the advertiser then has 30 days or more to pay for the ad. Thus, companies that sell online advertising can accumulate large receivables balances, and collecting cash can be a slow process.

That’s where the company FastPay comes in. FastPay makes loans to publishers, ad-tech companies, and other digital media businesses based on those firms’ accounts receivable. FastPay lends up to $5 million per borrower, with the terms of the loan based on the quality of the receivable. For example, if Pepsi were to enter into an agreement with YouTube to place online ads in videos, FastPay would grant a loan to YouTube on relatively favorable terms because it views Pepsi as a good credit risk. One area in which FastPay is expanding rapidly is in making loans to Facebook Preferred Marketing Developers, a network of small and mediumsized businesses that builds advertising apps on Facebook, manages ad campaigns, and helps Facebook develop new marketing strategies.

Firms rely on a wide array of short-term financing vehicles. In this chapter, you’ll learn about the ways companies can use short-term finance to help maximize the wealth of their shareholders.16.1 Spontaneous Liabilities

LG 1

LG 2

Spontaneous liabilities arise from the normal course of business. For example, when a retailer orders goods for inventory, the manufacturer of those goods usually does not demand immediate payment but instead extends a short-term loan to the retailer that appears on the retailer’s balance sheet under accounts payable. The more goods the retailer orders, the greater will be the accounts payable balance. Also in response to increasing sales, the firm’s accruals increase as wages and taxes rise because of greater labor requirements and the increased taxes on the firm’s increased earnings. There is normally no explicit cost attached to either of these current liabilities, although they do have certain implicit costs. In addition, both are forms of unsecured short-term financing , short-term financing obtained without pledging specific assets as collateral. The firm should take advantage of these “interest-free” sources of unsecured short-term financing whenever possible.spontaneous liabilities

Financing that arises from the normal course of business; the two major short-term sources of such liabilities are accounts payable and accruals.unsecured short-term financing

Short-term financing obtained without pledging specific assets as collateral.ACCOUNTS PAYABLE MANAGEMENT

Accounts payable are the major source of unsecured short-term financing for business firms. They result from transactions in which merchandise is purchased but no formal note is signed to show the purchaser’s liability to the seller. The purchaser in effect agrees to pay the supplier the amount required in accordance with credit terms normally stated on the supplier’s invoice. The discussion of accounts payable here is presented from the viewpoint of the purchaser.Role in the Cash Conversion Cycle

The average payment period is the final component of the cash conversion cycle introduced in Chapter 15 . The average payment period has two parts: (1) the time from the purchase of raw materials until the firm mails the payment and (2) payment float time (the time it takes after the firm mails its payment until the supplier has withdrawn spendable funds from the firm’s account). In Chapter 15 , we discussed issues related to payment float time. Here we discuss the firm’s management of the time that elapses between its purchase of raw materials and its mailing payment to the supplier. This activity is accounts payable management .accounts payable management

Management by the firm of the time that elapses between its purchase of raw materials and its mailing payment to the supplier.

When the seller of goods charges no interest and offers no discount to the buyer for early payment, the buyer’s goal is to pay as slowly as possible without damaging its credit rating. In other words, accounts should be paid on the last day possible, given the supplier’s stated credit terms. For example, if the terms are net 30, the account should be paid 30 days from the beginning of the credit period, which is typically either the date of invoice or the end of the month (EOM) in which the purchase was made. This timing allows for the maximum use of an interest-free loan from the supplier and will not damage the firm’s credit rating (because the account is paid within the stated credit terms). In addition, some firms offer an explicit or implicit “grace period” that extends a few days beyond the stated payment date; if taking advantage of that grace period does no harm to the buyer’s relationship with the seller, the buyer will typically take advantage of the grace period.Example 16.1

In 2013, Brown-Forman Corporation (BF), manufacturer of alcoholic beverage brands such as Jack Daniels, had annual revenue of $3.8 billion, cost of revenue of $1.8 billion, and accounts payable of $468 million. BF had an average age of inventory (AAI) of 168 days, an average collection period (ACP) of 55 days, and an average payment period (APP) of 136 days (BF’s purchases were $1.3 billion). Thus, the cash conversion cycle for BF was 87 days (168 + 55 − 136).

The resources BF had invested in this cash conversion cycle (assuming a 365-day year) were

Based on BF’s APP and average accounts payable, the daily accounts payable generated by BF is about $3.5 million ($0.48 billion ÷ 136). If BF were to increase its average payment period by 5 days, its accounts payable would increase by about $17.5 million (5 × $3.5 million). As a result, BF’s cash conversion cycle would decrease by 5 days, and the firm would reduce its investment in operations by $17.5 million. Clearly, if this action did not damage BF’s credit rating, it would be in the company’s best interest.Analyzing Credit Terms

The credit terms that a firm is offered by its suppliers enable it to delay payments for its purchases. Because the supplier’s cost of having its money tied up in merchandise after it is sold is probably reflected in the purchase price, the purchaser is already indirectly paying for this benefit. Sometimes a supplier will offer a cash discount for early payment. In that case, the purchaser should carefully analyze credit terms to determine the best time to repay the supplier. The purchaser must weigh the benefits of paying the supplier as late as possible against the costs of passing up the discount for early payment.

Taking the Cash Discount If a firm intends to take a cash discount, it should pay on the last day of the discount period. There is no added benefit from paying earlier than that date.Example 16.2

Lawrence Industries, operator of a small chain of video stores, purchased $1,000 worth of merchandise on February 27 from a supplier extending terms of 2/10 net 30 EOM. If the firm takes the cash discount, it must pay $980 [$1,000 − (0.02 × $1,000)] by March 10, thereby saving $20.

Giving Up the Cash Discount If the firm chooses to give up the cash discount, it should pay on the final day of the credit period. There is an implicit cost associated with giving up a cash discount. The cost of giving up a cash discount is the implied rate of interest paid to delay payment of an account payable for an additional number of days. In other words, when a firm gives up a discount, it pays a higher cost for the goods that it orders. The higher cost that the firm pays is like interest on a loan, and the length of this loan is the number of additional days that the purchaser can delay payment to the seller. This cost can be illustrated by a simple example. The example assumes that payment will be made on the last possible day (either the final day of the cash discount period or the final day of the credit period).cost of giving up a cash discount

The implied rate of interest paid to delay payment of an account payable for an additional number of days.FIGURE 16.1 Payment Options

Payment options for Lawrence IndustriesExample 16.3

My Finance Lab Solution Video

In Example 16.2 , we saw that Lawrence Industries could take the cash discount on its February 27 purchase by paying $980 on March 10. If Lawrence gives up the cash discount, it can pay on March 30. To keep its money for an extra 20 days, the firm must pay an extra $20, or $1,000 rather than $980. In other words, if the firm pays on March 30, it will pay $980 (what it could have paid on March 10) plus $20. The extra $20 is like interest on a loan, and in this case the $980 is like the loan principal. Lawrence Industries owes $980 to its supplier on March 10, but the supplier is willing to accept $980 plus $20 in interest on March 30. Figure 16.1 shows the payment options that are open to the company.

To calculate the implied interest rate associated with giving up the cash discount, we simply treat $980 as the loan principal, $20 as the interest, and 20 days (the time from March 10 to March 30) as the term of the loan. Again, the tradeoff that Lawrence faces is that it can pay $980 on March 10 or $980 plus $20 in interest 20 days later on March 30. Therefore, the interest rate that Lawrence is paying by giving up the discount is 2.04% ($20 ÷ $980). Keep in mind that the 2.04% interest rate applies to a 20-day loan. To calculate an annualized interest rate, we multiply the interest rate on this transaction times the number of 20-day periods during a year. The general expression for calculating the annual percentage cost of giving up a cash discount can be expressed as1

(16.1)

1. Equation 16.1 and the related discussions are based on the assumption that only one discount is offered. In the event that multiple discounts are offered, calculation of the cost of giving up the discount must be made for each alternative.

where

Substituting the values for CD (2%) and N (20 days) into Equation 16.1 results in an annualized cost of giving up the cash discount of 37.24% [(2% ÷ 98%) × (365 ÷ 20)].

A simple way to approximate the cost of giving up a cash discount is to use the stated cash discount percentage, CD, in place of the first term of Equation 16.1 :

(16.2)

The smaller the cash discount, the closer the approximation to the actual cost of giving it up. Using this approximation, the cost of giving up the cash discount for Lawrence Industries is 36.5% [2% × (365 ÷ 20)].

Using the Cost of Giving Up a Cash Discount in Decision Making The financial manager must determine whether it is advisable to take a cash discount. A primary consideration influencing this decision is the cost of other short-term sources of funding. When a firm can obtain financing from a bank or other institution at a lower cost than the implicit interest rate offered by its suppliers, the firm is better off borrowing from the bank and taking the discount offered by the supplier.Example 16.4

Mason Products, a large building-supply company, has four possible suppliers, each offering different credit terms. Otherwise, their products and services are identical. Table 16.1 presents the credit terms offered by suppliers A, B, C, and D and the cost of giving up the cash discounts in each transaction. The approximation method of calculating the cost of giving up a cash discount (Equation 16.2 ) has been used. The cost of giving up the cash discount from supplier A is 36.5%; from supplier B, 4.9%; from supplier C, 21.9%; and from supplier D, 29.2%.TABLE 16.1 Cash Discounts and Associated Costs for Mason Products

Supplier

Credit terms

Approximate cost of giving up a cash discount

A

2/10 net 30 EOM

36.5%

B

1/10 net 85 EOM

 4.9 

C

3/20 net 70 EOM

21.9 

D

4/10 net 60 EOM

29.2 

If the firm needs short-term funds, which it can borrow from its bank at an interest rate of 6%, and if each of the suppliers is viewed separately, which (if any) of the suppliers’ cash discounts will the firm give up? In dealing with supplier A, the firm takes the cash discount, because the cost of giving it up is 36.5%, and then borrows the funds it requires from its bank at 6% interest. With supplier B, the firm would do better to give up the cash discount, because the cost of this action is less than the cost of borrowing money from the bank (4.9% versus 6%). With either supplier C or supplier D, the firm should take the cash discount, because in both cases the cost of giving up the discount is greater than the 6% cost of borrowing from the bank.

The example shows that the cost of giving up a cash discount is relevant when one is evaluating a single supplier’s credit terms in light of certain bank borrowing costs. However, other factors relative to payment strategies may also need to be considered. For example, some firms, particularly small firms and poorly managed firms, routinely give up all discounts because they either lack alternative sources of unsecured short-term financing or fail to recognize the implicit costs of their actions.Effects of Stretching Accounts Payable

A strategy that is often employed by a firm is stretching accounts payable , that is, paying bills as late as possible without damaging its credit rating. Such a strategy can reduce the cost of giving up a cash discount.stretching accounts payable

Paying bills as late as possible without damaging the firm’s credit rating.Example 16.5

Lawrence Industries was extended credit terms of 2/10 net 30 EOM. The cost of giving up the cash discount, assuming payment on the last day of the credit period, was approximately 36.5% [2% × (365 ÷ 20)]. If the firm were able to stretch its account payable to 70 days without damaging its credit rating, the cost of giving up the cash discount would be only 12.2% [2% × (365 ÷ 60)]. Stretching accounts payable reduces the implicit cost of giving up a cash discount.

Although stretching accounts payable may be financially attractive, it raises an important ethical issue: It may cause the firm to violate the agreement it entered into with its supplier when it purchased merchandise. Clearly, a supplier would not look kindly on a customer who regularly and purposely postponed paying for purchases.Personal Finance Example 16.6

Jack and Mary Nobel, a young married couple, are in the process of purchasing a 50-inch HD TV at a cost of $1,900. The electronics dealer currently has a special financing plan that would allow them to either (1) put $200 down and finance the balance of $1,700 at 3% annual interest over 24 months, resulting in payments of $73 per month; or (2) receive an immediate $150 cash rebate, thereby paying only $1,750 cash. The Nobels, who have saved enough to pay cash for the TV, can currently earn 5% annual interest on their savings. They wish to determine whether to borrow or to pay cash to purchase the TV.

The upfront outlay for the financing alternative is the $200 down payment, whereas the Nobels will pay out $1,750 up front under the cash purchase alternative. So, the cash purchase will require an initial outlay that is $1,550 ($1,750 − $200) greater than under the financing alternative. Assuming that they can earn a simple interest rate of 5% on savings, the cash purchase will cause the Nobels to give up an opportunity to earn $155 (2 years × 0.05 × $1,550) over the 2 years.

If they choose the financing alternative, the $1,550 would grow to $1,705 ($1,550 + $155) at the end of 2 years. But under the financing alternative, the Nobels will pay out a total of $1,752 (24 months × $73 per month) over the 2-year loan term. The cost of the financing alternative can be viewed as $1,752, and the cost of the cash payment (including forgone interest earnings) would be $1,705. Because it is less expensive, the Nobels should pay cash for the TV. The lower cost of the cash alternative is largely the result of the $150 cash rebate.ACCRUALS

The second spontaneous source of short-term business financing is accruals. Accruals are liabilities for services received for which payment has yet to be made. The most common items accrued by a firm are wages and taxes. Because taxes are payments to the government, their accrual cannot be manipulated by the firm. However, the accrual of wages can be manipulated to some extent by delaying payment of wages, thereby receiving an interest-free loan from employees who are paid sometime after they have performed the work. The pay period for employees who earn an hourly rate is often governed by union regulations or by state or federal law. However, in other cases, the frequency of payment is at the discretion of the company’s management.accruals

Liabilities for services received for which payment has yet to be made.in practice focus on ETHICS: Accruals Management

On June 2, 2010, Diebold, Inc., agreed to pay a $25 million fine to settle accounting fraud charges brought by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). According to the SEC, the management of the Ohio-based manufacturer of ATMs, bank security systems, and electronic voting machines regularly received reports comparing the company’s earnings to analyst forecasts. When earnings were below forecasts, management identified opportunities, some of which amounted to accounting fraud, to close the gap.

“Diebold’s financial executives borrowed from many different chapters of the deceptive accounting playbook to fraudulently boost the company’s bottom line,” SEC Enforcement Director Robert Khuzami said in a statement. “When executives disregard their professional obligations to investors, both they and their companies face significant legal consequences.”a

A number of the SEC’s claims focused on premature revenue recognition. For example, Diebold was charged with improper use of “bill and hold” transactions. Under generally accepted accounting principles, revenue is typically recognized after a product is shipped. However, in some cases, sellers can recognize revenue before shipment for certain bill and hold transactions. The SEC claimed that Diebold improperly used bill and hold accounting to record revenue prematurely.

The SEC also claimed that Diebold manipulated various accounting accruals. Diebold was accused of understating liabilities tied to its Long Term Incentive Plan, commissions to be paid to sales personnel, and incentives to be paid to service personnel. Diebold temporarily reduced a liability account set up for payment of customer rebates. The company was also accused of overstating the value of inventory and improper inventory write-ups.

Each of these activities allowed Diebold to inflate the company’s financial performance. According to the SEC’s complaint, Diebold’s fraudulent activities misstated reported pretax earnings by at least $127 million between 2002 and 2007. Two years prior to the settlement, Diebold restated earnings for the period covered by the charges.

The clawback provision of the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley antifraud law requires executives to repay compensation they receive while their company misled shareholders. Diebold’s former CEO, Walden O’Dell, agreed to return $470,000 in cash, plus stock and options. The SEC is currently pursuing a lawsuit against two other former Diebold executives for their part in the matter.

Why might financial managers still be tempted to manage earnings when a clawback is a legitimate possibility?

aU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, “SEC Charges Diebold and Former Executives with Accounting Fraud,” press release, June 2, 2010, www.sec.gov/news/press/2010/2010-93.htm . Example 16.7

Tenney Company, a large janitorial service company, currently pays its employees at the end of each work week. The weekly payroll totals $400,000. If the firm were to extend the pay period so as to pay its employees 1 week later throughout an entire year, the employees would in effect be lending the firm $400,000 for a year. If the firm could earn 10% annually on invested funds, such a strategy would be worth $40,000 per year (0.10 × $400,000). REVIEW QUESTIONS16–1

What are the two major sources of spontaneous short-term financing for a firm? How do their balances behave relative to the firm’s sales?16–2

Is there a cost associated with taking a cash discount? Is there any cost associated with giving up a cash discount? How do short-term borrowing costs affect the cash discount decision?16–3

What is “stretching accounts payable”? What effect does this action have on the cost of giving up a cash discount?16.2 Unsecured Sources of Short-Term Loans

LG 3

LG 4

Businesses obtain unsecured short-term loans from two major sources, banks and sales of commercial paper. Unlike the spontaneous sources of unsecured short-term financing, bank loans and commercial paper are negotiated and result from actions taken by the firm’s financial manager. Bank loans are more popular because they are available to firms of all sizes; commercial paper tends to be available only to large firms. In addition, firms can use international loans to finance international transactions.BANK LOANS

Banks are a major source of unsecured short-term loans to businesses. The major type of loan made by banks to businesses is the short-term, self-liquidating loan . These loans are intended merely to carry the firm through seasonal peaks in financing needs that are due primarily to buildups of inventory and accounts receivable. As the firm converts inventories and receivables into cash, the funds needed to retire these loans are generated. In other words, the use to which the borrowed money is put provides the mechanism through which the loan is repaid, hence the term self-liquidating.short-term, self-liquidating loan

An unsecured short-term loan in which the use to which the borrowed money is put provides the mechanism through which the loan is repaid.

Banks lend unsecured, short-term funds in three basic ways: through single-payment notes, through lines of credit, and through revolving credit agreements. Before we look at these types of loans, we consider loan interest rates.Loan Interest Rates

The interest rate on a bank loan can be a fixed or a floating rate, and the interest rate is often based on the prime rate of interest. The prime rate of interest (prime rate) is the lowest rate of interest charged by leading banks on business loans to their most important business borrowers. The prime rate fluctuates with changing supply-and-demand relationships for short-term funds. Banks generally determine the rate to be charged to various borrowers by adding a premium to the prime rate to adjust it for the borrower’s “riskiness.” The premium may amount to 4 percent or more, although many unsecured short-term loans carry premiums of less than 2 percent.prime rate of interest (prime rate)

The lowest rate of interest charged by leading banks on business loans to their most important business borrowers.

Fixed- and Floating-Rate Loans Loans can have either fixed or floating interest rates. On a fixed-rate loan , the rate of interest is determined at a set increment above the prime rate on the date of the loan and remains unvarying at that fixed rate until maturity. On a floating-rate loan , the increment above the prime rate is initially established, and the rate of interest is allowed to “float,” or vary, above prime as the prime rate varies until maturity. Generally, the increment above the prime rate will be lower on a floating-rate loan than on a fixed-rate loan of equivalent risk because the lender bears less risk with a floating-rate loan. Most short-term business loans are floating-rate loans.fixed-rate loan

A loan with a rate of interest that is determined at a set increment above the prime rate and remains unvarying until maturity.floating-rate loan

A loan with a rate of interest initially set at an increment above the prime rate and allowed to “float,” or vary, above prime as the prime rate varies until maturity.

Method of Computing Interest Once the nominal (or stated) annual rate is established, the method of computing interest is determined. Interest can be paid either when a loan matures or in advance. If interest is paid at maturity, the effective (or true) annual rate—the actual rate of interest paid—for an assumed 1-year period is equal to

(16.3)

Most bank loans to businesses require the interest payment at maturity.

When interest is paid in advance, it is deducted from the loan so that the borrower actually receives less money than is requested (and less than they must repay). Loans on which interest is paid in advance are called discount loans . The effective annual rate for a discount loan, assuming a 1-year period, is calculated asdiscount loan

Loan on which interest is paid in advance by being deducted from the amount borrowed.

(16.4)

Paying interest in advance raises the effective annual rate above the stated annual rate.Example 16.8

Wooster Company, a manufacturer of athletic apparel, wants to borrow $10,000 at a stated annual rate of 10% interest for 1 year. If the interest on the loan is paid at maturity, the firm will pay $1,000 (0.10 × $10,000) for the use of the $10,000 for the year. At the end of the year, Wooster will write a check to the lender for $11,000, consisting of the $1,000 interest as well as the return of the $10,000 principal. Substituting into Equation 16.3 reveals that the effective annual rate is therefore

If the money is borrowed at the same stated annual rate for 1 year but interest is paid in advance, the firm still pays $1,000 in interest, but it receives only $9,000 ($10,000 − $1,000). The effective annual rate in this case is

In this case, at the end of the year Wooster writes a check to the lender for $10,000, having “paid” the $1,000 in interest up front by borrowing just $9,000. Paying interest in advance thus makes the effective annual rate (11.1%) greater than the stated annual rate (10.0%).Single-Payment Notes

A single-payment note can be obtained from a commercial bank by a creditworthy business borrower. This type of loan is usually a one-time loan made to a borrower who needs funds for a specific purpose for a short period. The resulting instrument is a note, signed by the borrower, that states the terms of the loan, including the length of the loan and the interest rate. This type of short-term note generally has a maturity of 30 days to 9 months or more. The interest charged is usually tied in some way to the prime rate of interest.single-payment note

A short-term, one-time loan made to a borrower who needs funds for a specific purpose for a short period.Example 16.9

Gordon Manufacturing, a producer of rotary mower blades, recently borrowed $100,000 from each of two banks, bank A and bank B. The loans were incurred on the same day, when the prime rate of interest was 6%. Each loan involved a 90-day note with interest to be paid at the end of 90 days. The interest rate was set at % above the prime rate on bank A’s fixed-rate note. Over the 90-day period, the rate of interest on this note will remain at % (6% prime rate + % increment) regardless of fluctuations in the prime rate. The total interest cost on this loan is $1.849 [$100,000 × (, × 90 ÷ 365)], which means that the 90-day rate on this loan is 1.85% ($1,849 ÷ $100,000).

Assuming that the loan from bank A is rolled over each 90 days throughout the year under the same terms and circumstances, we can find its effective annual interest rate, or EAR, by using Equation 5.10 . Because the loan costs 1.85% for 90 days, it is necessary to compound (1 + 0.0185) for 4.06 periods in the year (that is, 365 ÷ 90) and then subtract 1:

The effective annual rate of interest on the fixed-rate, 90-day note is 7.73%.

Bank B set the interest rate at 1% above the prime rate on its floating-rate note. The rate charged over the 90 days will vary directly with the prime rate. Initially, the rate will be 7% (6% + 1%), but when the prime rate changes, so will the rate of interest on the note. For instance, if after 30 days the prime rate rises to 6.5% and after another 30 days it drops to 6.25%, the firm will be paying 0.575% for the first 30 days (7% × 30 ÷ 365), 0.616% for the next 30 days (7.5% × 30 ÷ 365), and 0.596% for the last 30 days (7.25% × 30 ÷ 365). Its total interest cost will be $1,787 [$100,000 × (0.575% + 0.616% + 0.596%)], resulting in a 90-day rate of 1.79% ($1,787 ÷ $100,000).

Again, assuming the loan is rolled over each 90 days throughout the year under the same terms and circumstances, its effective annual rate is 7.46%:

Clearly, in this case the floating-rate loan would have been less expensive than the fixed-rate loan because of its generally lower effective annual rate.Personal Finance Example 16.10

Megan Schwartz has been approved by Clinton National Bank for a 180-day loan of $30,000 that will allow her to make the down payment and close the loan on her new condo. She needs the funds to bridge the time until the sale of her current condo, from which she expects to receive $42,000.

Clinton National offered Megan the following two financing options for the $30,000 loan: (1) a fixed-rate loan at 2% above the prime rate or (2) a variable-rate loan at 1% above the prime rate. Currently, the prime rate of interest is 8%, and the consensus forecast of a group of mortgage economists for changes in the prime rate over the next 180 days is as follows:60 days from today the prime rate will rise by 1%. 90 days from today the prime rate will rise another %. 1

 
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Ethical Conduct of Research; Infections disease: a global perspective

  

Ethical Conduct of Research

power point from this document, 15 slides

Introduction

Depending on the context of the study, researchers often encounter ethical dilemmas that are associated with respect for privacy, establishment of honest and open interactions, and avoidance of misrepresentation. From an ethical standpoint, such challenging circumstances may surface if researchers are grappling with conflicting issues and have to choose between different methodological approaches in complex circumstances. In such circumstances, disagreements among different components including participants, researchers, researchers’ disciplines, the financing organization, and the society might be inevitable. Therefore, there are numerous ethical concerns that should be taken into account when undertaking studies that deal with human subjects. Understanding ethical principles can guide researchers to conduct studies that safeguard the wellbeing of human subjects.

Overview of the Research

In a research work titled Resilience of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Indonesia: a Phenomenological Study, Kumboyono et al. (2018) observe that HIV/ AIDS is among the most prevalent and expanding communicable diseases on the planet. The number of individuals who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS continues to skyrocket every year in Indonesia and other parts of the world. According to Kumboyono et al. (2018), individuals who suffer from HIV/AIDS often plunge themselves into a series of crises, which indicate the challenges of living with the chronic pathological condition. As such, resilience is one distinct phenomenon that is common among persons living with the diseases Indonesia, a pattern that indicates the results of current health management and expectations of HIV/AIDS patients for better and improved health outcomes. In light of this concern, Kumboyono et al. (2018) undertook a study that sought to examine the mechanism of resilience in Indonesian people living with HIV/AIDS and the factors that influence their specific mechanisms. 

Using qualitative phenomenological design, the researchers sampled a total of 27 people living with HIV/AIDS from a primary health care institution in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. The participants were selected from different socioeconomic, gender, and sexual orientations. The researchers informed participants about the conduct and processes involved in the study, resulting in their consent to participate in the interview process. The findings of the study indicated that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS reflects the onset of psychological and social distress. Moreover, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) found that the spiritual response that follows diagnosis is a state that is characterized by crises. As a consequence, the coping strategies and understanding of life by HIV patients is a definite sign on resilience. Based on these findings, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) infer that HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection that has the potential to induce the unique mechanism of resilience within the Indonesian social system. Therefore, future health and management of persons living with HIV/ AIDS will be needed to enhance and encourage this strategy to guide persons living with HIV into a more comfortable and healthy way of life. 

Ethical Issues in Research

The relationships and interactions established between the researcher and participants in a study can potentially generate a wide range of varying ethical issues. While ethical codes, policies and principles are highly significant and beneficial, like any set of norms, they do not cater for all situations. Thus, they often have a high potentiality of conflicting. Nonetheless, the vast majority of decisions often entail the straightforward application of ethical codes and practices. Ethics is one of the most important issues that are commonly mentioned by educators in the scientific community. Ethical misconducts most commonly stem from environmental and individual causes. For instance, when people who are morally weak or unaware of the rules participate in research, ethical violations are bound to occur. Thus, many significant forms of the ethical deviations that are observed in many scientific studies are attributed to the fact that some researchers are oblivious of the ethical norms of scientific research. 

Protection of Human Rights

The most important ethical principles in research focus on protecting human rights when dealing with human subjects. Principles of protection of human rights during research emerged out of a dark history that was littered with accounts of abuses undertaken in the name of medical research.  One of the most dreadful of these atrocities were undertaken by the Nazi physicians who utilized convicts for human experimentation (Avasthi et al. 2013). The unearthing of these experiments sent ripples of shock across the world, a situation that resulted in the development of the Nuremberg Code to deter recurrence of similar episodes. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code of ethics in clinical research that laid down the guidelines for research dealing with human subjects. This policy made laid down principles, guidelines and standards to be followed by researchers and make voluntary consent essential, allowed subjects withdraw from the experimentation at any time, banned experiments that could lead to major injuries or fatalities of the subjects, and made it mandatory to have preclinical data prior to the experimentation of humans. However, the Nuremberg Code failed to end unethical practices conducted by certain researchers (Avasthi et al. 2013). As a consequence, a collection of guidelines was developed by the 18th World Medical Association General Assembly, also referred to as the Declaration of Helsinki. 

The Helsinki Declaration had a collection of principles, which emphasize on informed consent, confidentiality of data, vulnerable populations, and requirements of a protocol, including the scientific justifications for the study. All researches had to be reviewed based on these standards by the ethics committee for a research to be declared as ethically fit (Avasthi et al. 2013).  However, it is during the time of the Helsinki Declaration that other major scandals continued such as the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in the United States. This malpractice raised concerns in the ethics community, thereby resulting in the establishment of the Belmont Report in 1979. The Belmont Report established the modern regulations and human rights principles associated with research dealing with human subjects in the United States and other parts of the world (Avasthi et al. 2013). Nonetheless, with the growing interest in pharmaceutical, health, and psychological research in the developing and the underdeveloped nations, the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health researchers designed the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects in 1982 (Avasthi et al. 2013).  Thereafter, other professional research organizations such as the American Psychological Organization (APA), have designed similar standards that relate to protection of human rights in studies that deal with human subjects. 

The Five Human Rights that Must Be Protected

There are five cardinal ethical principles that reflect the five human rights that must be protected during research. These principles include: nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice, as well as right to self-determination. The principle of nonmaleficence states that the researcher has an obligation to avoid infliction of harm on human subjects in a study. This principle is closely interlinked with the maxim primum non nocere (‘first do no harm’). The principle of nonmaleficence prohibits killing, causing pain or suffering, incapacitating, and causing an offense on the human subject during research. Therefore, this principle encourages researchers to act in ways that do not cause physical or mental harm on the research participants. More precisely, the principle states that researchers should not cause avoidable or intentional harm. This should incorporate avoidance of any possible risks associated with harm (Jahn, 2013). Researchers should avoid intentional and unintentional violations of this ethical principle. For instance, a researcher does not necessarily intend to harm in order to violate this principle. As a matter of fact, knowingly or unknowingly subjecting a research participant to unnecessary risk amounts to violation of the principle of nonmaleficense. 

The principle of nonmaleficense has been applied to this study in many ways. One of the primary focuses of the study was to investigate the coping skills of people living with HIV/AIDS. Thus, when analyzing these coping skills and strategies, the researcher must engage in a one-on-one interview with the participants (Jahn, 2013). In the process, questions that trigger psychological and emotional pain might be asked unknowingly. Such situations are likely to occur in the study, especially when dealing with participants who suffer from HIV/AIDS. In almost all parts of the world, HIV/AIDS patients often witness numerous cases of social stigma. These negative experiences may interfere with the manner in which they respond to interview questions. Therefore, it is the task of the researcher to develop strategies that can help to minimize any possible mental and emotional paint that the persons living with HIV are likely o experience as a result of the data gathering and interview questions. Many studies on nonmaleficense often narrow down to physical harm (Chagani, 2014). However, the concept of harm is broad and dynamic, incorporating all dimensions of human life, including the mental and physical realms. In this particular study, there is no serious physical interaction with the participants that might cause physical pain, harm or death. 

The concept of harm is broad and takes many forms. They range from physical and emotional injuries to deprivation of property or violations of human rights. Within the research context, the primary emphasis of harm is often linked to a narrower definition, such as pain, disability, or death (Chagani, 2014). Within these standards, the research has observed avoidance of harm since all the participants who took part in the study did not die, sustain any physical injury or disability stemming from the research. However, harm can be strongly within the eye of the beholder, and a wider definition of harm is often required during ethical considerations. In light of the above, more than one level of harm may come into play in a situation. For instance, the researchers are more likely to inflict mental pain and suffering in the participants by asking questions related to the way in which they responded to the news that they had been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. However, in such a situation, the researchers have imposed one harm in order to avoid a greater harm. Nonetheless, in all situations, researchers should be prohibited from acting in ways that are likely to generate undue risks or needless harm to participants. 

The principle of beneficence is a moral obligation to act for the benefit of others. In this respect, any research work that observes this principle should be designed in a way that is meant to promote societal good and wellbeing (Jahn, 2013). There are various ways in which this principle comes into play. For instance, the principle suggests that researchers should act in a manner that provides benefits to the society, and balances benefits with risks or harms. The principle of beneficence is broad and multifaceted. It includes protecting and defending the rights of others, preventing harm from occurring to others, removing conditions that will cause harm, and supporting persons with disabilities. Furthermore, this principle advocates for rescuing persons in danger during and after research. In furtherance of these ethical standards advocated by beneficence, there are various ways in which the study can be assessed. For instance, the outcomes of the study seeks to improve health professionals’ understanding of HIV/AIDS patients’ coping skills and strategies and the psychological pain that they undergo in the process of coping. As a result, it provides health professionals and psychological researchers with insights into ways of developing interventions that are meant to address mental health problems that affect HIV patients. 

The study encourages researchers to design interventions that are meant to enable HIV patients to bounce back to their normal psychological and social norms after receiving adversities as a consequence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Indeed, the nature of resilience among individuals who are diagnosed with chronic infections can be grouped into the crisis and survival stages. The former is characterized by the onset of a psychological and physical struggle that follows after diagnosis with several struggles. This study can inform future evidence-based practices that seek to design cognitive and counseling strategies for improving the quality of life of persons living with HIV/ AIDS. As such, the study fulfills the ethical principle of benefiting the participants and the society at large by promoting greater good and wellbeing for persons living with HIV/AIDS. 

The ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficense are multidimensional and intertwined. These dimensions include positivity and utility. Positivity can be described as the benefits that are gained after undertaking the research, which outweighs its costs. For instance, timely understanding of the mental and pain that HIV patients undergo after diagnosis can help to reduce major depression and help to cope will with the disease. On the other hand, utility refers to the benefits of undertaking an action that balances its costs. For instance, in a clinical research that explores psychological pain that patients undergo, the patient control group may only receive psychological treatment-as-usual instead of the experimental treatment that could generate extra gains. Beneficence and nonmaleficence are fundamental ethical principles that are essential in guiding the clinical practice and research in both psychology and healthcare. Beneficence encourages the researcher to exercise responsibility of promoting the wellbeing of the patients, especially participants in clinical trials, often by researching and administering therapeutic interventions with the highest possibility of positive patient responsivity. One of the biggest ethical dilemmas that psychologists confront is the need to strike a balance between beneficence and nonmaleficence. This balance may sometimes entail weighing the possible benefits and limitations or net risks associated with a specific research. In all jurisdictions, researchers are required by law to inform their participants or patients of the possible risks and gains of a research, procedure, or testy. This move allows the study participants to make an informed decision, with theirs being the burden to assess the potential costs and benefits of the available alternatives. 

Autonomy and self-determination are other fundamental human right that the participants should be granted during a research. Thus, respect for autonomy is a practice that obligates the researcher to respect the decisions of adults who have the capacity to make their own decisions. There are three conditions that must be existent for an action by the research subject to be regarded as autonomous. They include: intentionality, understanding, as well as complete absence of controlling influences that determine the subject’s decisions. In order to meet the ethical obligation of autonomy, there are several moral standards or guidelines that can be used. They include: telling the truth, respecting the privacy of others, protecting the confidentiality of information, as well s seeking consent from the participant before commencing the data gathering process. Respect for autonomy represents an obligation to the researcher to respect the decision making capabilities of the participants. It also denotes the provision of choices and alternatives to the subject so that they can practice self-determination. In this study, the participants’ rights to autonomy were observed by providing them with all the relevant information about the study and giving them the opportunity to decide whether or not to participate in the research. This process was primarily exercised through issuance of informed consent forms to the subjects. 

Within the context of this study, the subjects’ autonomy were respected by first giving them all sufficient information that are necessary for the research and then giving them the opportunity to consent or reject proposals to participate in it. Based on this practice, it is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure that the subject is sufficiently competent to practice autonomy. By competency, a research subject should be not only conscious, but also possess the sufficient knowledge and understanding to gain and maintain the information offered to take relevant decisions. Along with this view, the principle also requires the researcher to offer complete information to the participant and not hide anything so that the patient may seek to meet an obligation or can desire to spend some valuable time with family members and friends. The subject, after knowing the truth, may desire to do a hobby with which he or she desired to do. The participant may also seek to select other options of the research that may not be available or provided by the researchers. However, it is the right of human beings to be treated in a way that does not cause pain and anguish. Therefore, the researcher should go by the data gathering method in which the participants are comfortable with in order to avoid restraining the subject from exercising autonomy. In addition, in many jurisdictions, going ahead with a research against patients’ rights and decisions even if it is meant for their goodwill, is considered as an illegal decision. Therefore, a comprehensive justification on legal is often needed to undertake a research involving subjects who are patients against their knowledge and will. The principle of beneficence supports the autonomy of the patients as in the case of telling the truth to the research subject and respecting the subject’s autonomy can go a long way in generating the desired benefits to the participants, who will feel more confident in determining their course of life. 

Further, self-determination is a human right that is also relevant and interrelated to the right to autonomy. Self-determination is a right and principle that plays a critical role in the contemporary research ethics associated with human subject. Put simply, this principle suggests that ultimately, it is the participant who should make the final decision as to whether or not to accept a proposed research process (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).  While this principle is widely discussed in many academic works, one of its most significant elements has often been overlooked- the fact that real-world decision making is temporarily extended. In this respect, decision-making is a process that broadly takes a significant period of time from the time at which the researcher determines that there is a need for the subject to participate in the clinical research and that there is a decision that should be made. Moreover, the participant should be able to make it to the point at which they are actually asked for their views. The principle of self-determination is broadly viewed as the center of research ethics and trials in the health sector (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   It is a principle that is commonly codified in legal frameworks and standards across different parts of the world, and has had a major effect on researchers’ understanding of ways of dealing with several legal and ethical issues associated with handling human subjects in research. 

There are several accounts of the content and implications of the principle that have been put into use within the context of this study.  For instance, in all stages of the study, the patients were given the liberty to opt out of the research. Through the issuance of informed consent documents and explaining to them the conduct and content of the study, they were sufficiently empowered to determine whether or not they would like to chat their own path by either remaining or opting out of the research. In view of this phenomenon, it would be deduced that it is the research subject who ultimately, following evaluation of all relevant information offered by the researchers, has the authority to decide whether or not to consent to the research. The principle of self-determination raises many fundamental questions. One such question revolves around who should self-determination be applicable to. In this study, the main subjects of self determination are the participants of the research. They are the HIV/AIDS patients who were interviewed on their psychological coping skills. Since a right to self-determination is often traditionally ascribed only to people with sufficient decision-making capabilities, one major issue that confronts many researchers is what it takes for a patient to be above the recommended threshold. Based on this standard, it is not clear in this study whether or not the HIV patient populations that were sampled were above the recommended normal mental threshold that is required of them to make informed decision on whether or not they should take part in the research. However, it can still be implied that they were mentally upright at the time of decision-making based on the nature of the data that have been gathered. 

When it comes to self-determination, real-world decision-making capabilities can be temporarily extended in that it broadly takes some significant period of time from the point at which the researcher determines that there is a consent decision that should be made, and that the patient is mentally fit or able to make it (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   Moreover, such a situation should extent to the point at which the subject is asked about their views. Such a temporal element of decision-making raises normative questions. For instance, it may not be clear under what situations and length of time the researcher should wait in order to get the feedback from the subject on the decisions that they have made regarding participation in the research. 

Finally, the principle of justice in research can also be used to analyze the ethical standards that were used in the study. The right to justice requires the researcher to exercise equity in the distribution of the benefits of the research. These include the benefits, costs, and resources. The key justice principles in a study include: promotion of equal share, giving each person in accordance with heir efforts, rewarding each individual according to their contributions, and issuing gains made out of the research according to merits (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). In almost all forms, clinical trials require the active participation of human subjects and entail clinical interventions that are comprised of various procedures. However, this study only engaged human subjects in the interviewing process alone. Still, the performance of a study involving human subject can be beneficial to the economy and the whole society, especially the participating country, thereby generating employment opportunities and promoting local scientific and technological progress through the scientific data found and studied in collaboration with many research centers (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). The financial and economic gains of this particular study have not yet been determined. However, its insights can be used to develop interventions that help to promote psychological wellbeing of persons living with HIV/AIDS. In so doing, the study can immensely improve their quality of life. 

Ethical Scientific Integrity

The credibility of a researcher or author is very critical in assessing the authenticity and quality of a specific research work. The personal details of the authors who developed this research work have not been provided in the journal article. However, there are other standards that can still be used to determine the credibility and level of suitability of the researchers to undertake the above study. For instance, the authors have revealed at the end of the article that their study was funded by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Culture and Education in the Republic of Indonesia. Based on this standard alone, it can be deduced that the authors have the necessary academic credentials and intellectual acumen or capacity to undertake such a study. In addition, the mere fact that the study was approved by these higher educational bodies raises the credibility of the authors. Another factor that raises the credibility of this particular study is that its findings were assessed and later published by the Research HIV Nursing, which is a widely known reputable international journal that publishes studies on HIV research. 

Plagiarism is one of the ethical issues in research that are hardly ever mentioned. However, its violations can have far-reaching consequences on the credibility and authenticity of a specific body of knowledge. Plagiarism can be defined as the unethical practice of stealing and passing off ideas or group of words as one’s own (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). Plagiarism is also the act of utilizing someone’s ideas and works and pretending to be one’s own. In light of the above, there are various ways in which plagiarism manifests itself in research. For instance, many researchers often fail to recognize the originators of their collection of words. However, this specific study can be said to have passed plagiarism test. First, the body section of the study has various in-text citations, indicating that the authors acknowledged the sources or originators of the ideas that were sued in the study (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  In addition, all the in-text citations have their corresponding bibliographic citations. As such, the authors do not have a case of plagiarism or copyright violation. 

Fabrication and falsification are some of the cardinal malpractices ion research conduct. They are commonly regarded as the key concerns in averting research misconduct. Any deviation or departure from such standards often undermines the integrity of a specific body of research for an individual or organization as a whole (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Falsification can be described as the practice of altering or omitting research findings to support certain claims, hypotheses, as well as other data. This can include the act of manipulating study instrumentation, materials, or procedures. Usually, manipulations of images or representations in a way that distorts the figures or data or reads too much between the lines can also be regarded as an act of falsification (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). The process of identifying a case of falsification or fabrication is often a complex one. As such, it was not possible for this specific study to detect any case of falsification. This is because the main data that were being explored were primarily qualitative and they were derived from the interview responses. In the same way, it was not easy to detect any case of outright fabrication. Fabrication is the development of or inclusion of data, observations, or characterizations that never took place during the collection of data. Fabrications are likely to take place during the process of filling out the entire of an experiment runs (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Moreover, the researchers might come up with claims on the basis of incomplete or presumed findings, which are regarded as outright forms of fabrication. 

Institutional Review Board

Details on the Institutional Review Board (IRB) pertaining to this study have not been written in the article. However, the researchers indicate that they passed through the due process of informed consent and other ethical standards before they were approved to participate in the study. In addition, the study was approved by the Ministry of Higher Education, although such a ministry may or may not develop an IRB to assess the ethical suitability of the researchers. Therefore, it is not easy to determine whether or not the above study was approved by IRB. However, the researchers’ use of human subjects was not experimental in nature. Rather, use of human subjects in this study was minimized to data collection process through interviews. 

The absence of details regarding the IRB in this study calls for the need for future researchers to report as to whether or not their studies were approved by an ethics body. All individual organizations or sponsors may demand that all studies, irrespective of their sources of funding, be assessed and approved by an IRB (Whitney, 2015). An IRB has the specific power and authority over the nature of the research within its jurisdiction. For instance, no clinical research may be approved to stat enrolling participants until it has been given the green light by the IRB. The IRB primarily has the authority to approve, dismiss, or halt all research activities that fall within its jurisdictions in accordance with the relevant government regulations and institutional standards and procedures. The IRB also ensures that a given research meets the needed ethical standards by demanding for modifications in processes, protocols as well as previously approved studies (Whitney, 2015). Furthermore, the IRB has the power and authority to demand that participants in a specific research be granted any extra information that will enable them to make informed decisions to participate in the study. 

One of the most important documentations that the IRB may require is the informed consent form. While researchers who indicate that they provided participants with informed consent might have gone through the IRB, it might not be the case in all situations. All institutions that take part in the research process that engage human subjects are often tasked with the responsibility of identifying an IRB to assess and approve such studies (Whitney, 2015). The IRB is charged with the responsibility of adhering to the requirements and standards recommended by the Office for Human Research Protections. Many study sites may be under the jurisdiction of more than one IRB. Then IRB plays a significant role in safeguarding the rights, safety, and wellbeing of all human study participants. The IRB meets this responsibility by assessing the full research plan for a specific research study in order to ensure that it meets the standards that have been recommended by local and international codes of research ethics (Whitney, 2015). Moreover, the IRB undertakes a confirmation and approval that the study plan does not expose human subjects to unreasonable risks. In this particular study, human subjects are not exposed to unreasonable risks because their role in the research is to simply explain how they psychologically cope with the news of their diagnosis with HIV/ AIDS. 

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the main ethical practice that has been extensively observed by the researchers in this study. For instance, after selecting the populations to participate in the study, the participants were informed regarding the conduct of the research. Thereafter, the researchers report that the participants consented to the proposals to participate in the interview. The researchers also indicate that the study participants were given the opportunity to opt out of the research at any stage if they so wished. Therefore, it can be deduced that the study adhered to the recommended informed consent procedures and standards. 

Informed consent can be described as the voluntary acceptance by a study subject to participate in a research (Minor, 2015). Thus, informed consent should not be treated simplistically as a form that is signed but a process. As a process, informed consent is regarded as an essentiality before registering a participa

 
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Ethical Conduct of Research; Infections disease: a global perspective

  

Ethical Conduct of Research

power point from this document, 15 slides

Introduction

Depending on the context of the study, researchers often encounter ethical dilemmas that are associated with respect for privacy, establishment of honest and open interactions, and avoidance of misrepresentation. From an ethical standpoint, such challenging circumstances may surface if researchers are grappling with conflicting issues and have to choose between different methodological approaches in complex circumstances. In such circumstances, disagreements among different components including participants, researchers, researchers’ disciplines, the financing organization, and the society might be inevitable. Therefore, there are numerous ethical concerns that should be taken into account when undertaking studies that deal with human subjects. Understanding ethical principles can guide researchers to conduct studies that safeguard the wellbeing of human subjects.

Overview of the Research

In a research work titled Resilience of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Indonesia: a Phenomenological Study, Kumboyono et al. (2018) observe that HIV/ AIDS is among the most prevalent and expanding communicable diseases on the planet. The number of individuals who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS continues to skyrocket every year in Indonesia and other parts of the world. According to Kumboyono et al. (2018), individuals who suffer from HIV/AIDS often plunge themselves into a series of crises, which indicate the challenges of living with the chronic pathological condition. As such, resilience is one distinct phenomenon that is common among persons living with the diseases Indonesia, a pattern that indicates the results of current health management and expectations of HIV/AIDS patients for better and improved health outcomes. In light of this concern, Kumboyono et al. (2018) undertook a study that sought to examine the mechanism of resilience in Indonesian people living with HIV/AIDS and the factors that influence their specific mechanisms. 

Using qualitative phenomenological design, the researchers sampled a total of 27 people living with HIV/AIDS from a primary health care institution in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. The participants were selected from different socioeconomic, gender, and sexual orientations. The researchers informed participants about the conduct and processes involved in the study, resulting in their consent to participate in the interview process. The findings of the study indicated that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS reflects the onset of psychological and social distress. Moreover, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) found that the spiritual response that follows diagnosis is a state that is characterized by crises. As a consequence, the coping strategies and understanding of life by HIV patients is a definite sign on resilience. Based on these findings, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) infer that HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection that has the potential to induce the unique mechanism of resilience within the Indonesian social system. Therefore, future health and management of persons living with HIV/ AIDS will be needed to enhance and encourage this strategy to guide persons living with HIV into a more comfortable and healthy way of life. 

Ethical Issues in Research

The relationships and interactions established between the researcher and participants in a study can potentially generate a wide range of varying ethical issues. While ethical codes, policies and principles are highly significant and beneficial, like any set of norms, they do not cater for all situations. Thus, they often have a high potentiality of conflicting. Nonetheless, the vast majority of decisions often entail the straightforward application of ethical codes and practices. Ethics is one of the most important issues that are commonly mentioned by educators in the scientific community. Ethical misconducts most commonly stem from environmental and individual causes. For instance, when people who are morally weak or unaware of the rules participate in research, ethical violations are bound to occur. Thus, many significant forms of the ethical deviations that are observed in many scientific studies are attributed to the fact that some researchers are oblivious of the ethical norms of scientific research. 

Protection of Human Rights

The most important ethical principles in research focus on protecting human rights when dealing with human subjects. Principles of protection of human rights during research emerged out of a dark history that was littered with accounts of abuses undertaken in the name of medical research.  One of the most dreadful of these atrocities were undertaken by the Nazi physicians who utilized convicts for human experimentation (Avasthi et al. 2013). The unearthing of these experiments sent ripples of shock across the world, a situation that resulted in the development of the Nuremberg Code to deter recurrence of similar episodes. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code of ethics in clinical research that laid down the guidelines for research dealing with human subjects. This policy made laid down principles, guidelines and standards to be followed by researchers and make voluntary consent essential, allowed subjects withdraw from the experimentation at any time, banned experiments that could lead to major injuries or fatalities of the subjects, and made it mandatory to have preclinical data prior to the experimentation of humans. However, the Nuremberg Code failed to end unethical practices conducted by certain researchers (Avasthi et al. 2013). As a consequence, a collection of guidelines was developed by the 18th World Medical Association General Assembly, also referred to as the Declaration of Helsinki. 

The Helsinki Declaration had a collection of principles, which emphasize on informed consent, confidentiality of data, vulnerable populations, and requirements of a protocol, including the scientific justifications for the study. All researches had to be reviewed based on these standards by the ethics committee for a research to be declared as ethically fit (Avasthi et al. 2013).  However, it is during the time of the Helsinki Declaration that other major scandals continued such as the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in the United States. This malpractice raised concerns in the ethics community, thereby resulting in the establishment of the Belmont Report in 1979. The Belmont Report established the modern regulations and human rights principles associated with research dealing with human subjects in the United States and other parts of the world (Avasthi et al. 2013). Nonetheless, with the growing interest in pharmaceutical, health, and psychological research in the developing and the underdeveloped nations, the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health researchers designed the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects in 1982 (Avasthi et al. 2013).  Thereafter, other professional research organizations such as the American Psychological Organization (APA), have designed similar standards that relate to protection of human rights in studies that deal with human subjects. 

The Five Human Rights that Must Be Protected

There are five cardinal ethical principles that reflect the five human rights that must be protected during research. These principles include: nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice, as well as right to self-determination. The principle of nonmaleficence states that the researcher has an obligation to avoid infliction of harm on human subjects in a study. This principle is closely interlinked with the maxim primum non nocere (‘first do no harm’). The principle of nonmaleficence prohibits killing, causing pain or suffering, incapacitating, and causing an offense on the human subject during research. Therefore, this principle encourages researchers to act in ways that do not cause physical or mental harm on the research participants. More precisely, the principle states that researchers should not cause avoidable or intentional harm. This should incorporate avoidance of any possible risks associated with harm (Jahn, 2013). Researchers should avoid intentional and unintentional violations of this ethical principle. For instance, a researcher does not necessarily intend to harm in order to violate this principle. As a matter of fact, knowingly or unknowingly subjecting a research participant to unnecessary risk amounts to violation of the principle of nonmaleficense. 

The principle of nonmaleficense has been applied to this study in many ways. One of the primary focuses of the study was to investigate the coping skills of people living with HIV/AIDS. Thus, when analyzing these coping skills and strategies, the researcher must engage in a one-on-one interview with the participants (Jahn, 2013). In the process, questions that trigger psychological and emotional pain might be asked unknowingly. Such situations are likely to occur in the study, especially when dealing with participants who suffer from HIV/AIDS. In almost all parts of the world, HIV/AIDS patients often witness numerous cases of social stigma. These negative experiences may interfere with the manner in which they respond to interview questions. Therefore, it is the task of the researcher to develop strategies that can help to minimize any possible mental and emotional paint that the persons living with HIV are likely o experience as a result of the data gathering and interview questions. Many studies on nonmaleficense often narrow down to physical harm (Chagani, 2014). However, the concept of harm is broad and dynamic, incorporating all dimensions of human life, including the mental and physical realms. In this particular study, there is no serious physical interaction with the participants that might cause physical pain, harm or death. 

The concept of harm is broad and takes many forms. They range from physical and emotional injuries to deprivation of property or violations of human rights. Within the research context, the primary emphasis of harm is often linked to a narrower definition, such as pain, disability, or death (Chagani, 2014). Within these standards, the research has observed avoidance of harm since all the participants who took part in the study did not die, sustain any physical injury or disability stemming from the research. However, harm can be strongly within the eye of the beholder, and a wider definition of harm is often required during ethical considerations. In light of the above, more than one level of harm may come into play in a situation. For instance, the researchers are more likely to inflict mental pain and suffering in the participants by asking questions related to the way in which they responded to the news that they had been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. However, in such a situation, the researchers have imposed one harm in order to avoid a greater harm. Nonetheless, in all situations, researchers should be prohibited from acting in ways that are likely to generate undue risks or needless harm to participants. 

The principle of beneficence is a moral obligation to act for the benefit of others. In this respect, any research work that observes this principle should be designed in a way that is meant to promote societal good and wellbeing (Jahn, 2013). There are various ways in which this principle comes into play. For instance, the principle suggests that researchers should act in a manner that provides benefits to the society, and balances benefits with risks or harms. The principle of beneficence is broad and multifaceted. It includes protecting and defending the rights of others, preventing harm from occurring to others, removing conditions that will cause harm, and supporting persons with disabilities. Furthermore, this principle advocates for rescuing persons in danger during and after research. In furtherance of these ethical standards advocated by beneficence, there are various ways in which the study can be assessed. For instance, the outcomes of the study seeks to improve health professionals’ understanding of HIV/AIDS patients’ coping skills and strategies and the psychological pain that they undergo in the process of coping. As a result, it provides health professionals and psychological researchers with insights into ways of developing interventions that are meant to address mental health problems that affect HIV patients. 

The study encourages researchers to design interventions that are meant to enable HIV patients to bounce back to their normal psychological and social norms after receiving adversities as a consequence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Indeed, the nature of resilience among individuals who are diagnosed with chronic infections can be grouped into the crisis and survival stages. The former is characterized by the onset of a psychological and physical struggle that follows after diagnosis with several struggles. This study can inform future evidence-based practices that seek to design cognitive and counseling strategies for improving the quality of life of persons living with HIV/ AIDS. As such, the study fulfills the ethical principle of benefiting the participants and the society at large by promoting greater good and wellbeing for persons living with HIV/AIDS. 

The ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficense are multidimensional and intertwined. These dimensions include positivity and utility. Positivity can be described as the benefits that are gained after undertaking the research, which outweighs its costs. For instance, timely understanding of the mental and pain that HIV patients undergo after diagnosis can help to reduce major depression and help to cope will with the disease. On the other hand, utility refers to the benefits of undertaking an action that balances its costs. For instance, in a clinical research that explores psychological pain that patients undergo, the patient control group may only receive psychological treatment-as-usual instead of the experimental treatment that could generate extra gains. Beneficence and nonmaleficence are fundamental ethical principles that are essential in guiding the clinical practice and research in both psychology and healthcare. Beneficence encourages the researcher to exercise responsibility of promoting the wellbeing of the patients, especially participants in clinical trials, often by researching and administering therapeutic interventions with the highest possibility of positive patient responsivity. One of the biggest ethical dilemmas that psychologists confront is the need to strike a balance between beneficence and nonmaleficence. This balance may sometimes entail weighing the possible benefits and limitations or net risks associated with a specific research. In all jurisdictions, researchers are required by law to inform their participants or patients of the possible risks and gains of a research, procedure, or testy. This move allows the study participants to make an informed decision, with theirs being the burden to assess the potential costs and benefits of the available alternatives. 

Autonomy and self-determination are other fundamental human right that the participants should be granted during a research. Thus, respect for autonomy is a practice that obligates the researcher to respect the decisions of adults who have the capacity to make their own decisions. There are three conditions that must be existent for an action by the research subject to be regarded as autonomous. They include: intentionality, understanding, as well as complete absence of controlling influences that determine the subject’s decisions. In order to meet the ethical obligation of autonomy, there are several moral standards or guidelines that can be used. They include: telling the truth, respecting the privacy of others, protecting the confidentiality of information, as well s seeking consent from the participant before commencing the data gathering process. Respect for autonomy represents an obligation to the researcher to respect the decision making capabilities of the participants. It also denotes the provision of choices and alternatives to the subject so that they can practice self-determination. In this study, the participants’ rights to autonomy were observed by providing them with all the relevant information about the study and giving them the opportunity to decide whether or not to participate in the research. This process was primarily exercised through issuance of informed consent forms to the subjects. 

Within the context of this study, the subjects’ autonomy were respected by first giving them all sufficient information that are necessary for the research and then giving them the opportunity to consent or reject proposals to participate in it. Based on this practice, it is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure that the subject is sufficiently competent to practice autonomy. By competency, a research subject should be not only conscious, but also possess the sufficient knowledge and understanding to gain and maintain the information offered to take relevant decisions. Along with this view, the principle also requires the researcher to offer complete information to the participant and not hide anything so that the patient may seek to meet an obligation or can desire to spend some valuable time with family members and friends. The subject, after knowing the truth, may desire to do a hobby with which he or she desired to do. The participant may also seek to select other options of the research that may not be available or provided by the researchers. However, it is the right of human beings to be treated in a way that does not cause pain and anguish. Therefore, the researcher should go by the data gathering method in which the participants are comfortable with in order to avoid restraining the subject from exercising autonomy. In addition, in many jurisdictions, going ahead with a research against patients’ rights and decisions even if it is meant for their goodwill, is considered as an illegal decision. Therefore, a comprehensive justification on legal is often needed to undertake a research involving subjects who are patients against their knowledge and will. The principle of beneficence supports the autonomy of the patients as in the case of telling the truth to the research subject and respecting the subject’s autonomy can go a long way in generating the desired benefits to the participants, who will feel more confident in determining their course of life. 

Further, self-determination is a human right that is also relevant and interrelated to the right to autonomy. Self-determination is a right and principle that plays a critical role in the contemporary research ethics associated with human subject. Put simply, this principle suggests that ultimately, it is the participant who should make the final decision as to whether or not to accept a proposed research process (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).  While this principle is widely discussed in many academic works, one of its most significant elements has often been overlooked- the fact that real-world decision making is temporarily extended. In this respect, decision-making is a process that broadly takes a significant period of time from the time at which the researcher determines that there is a need for the subject to participate in the clinical research and that there is a decision that should be made. Moreover, the participant should be able to make it to the point at which they are actually asked for their views. The principle of self-determination is broadly viewed as the center of research ethics and trials in the health sector (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   It is a principle that is commonly codified in legal frameworks and standards across different parts of the world, and has had a major effect on researchers’ understanding of ways of dealing with several legal and ethical issues associated with handling human subjects in research. 

There are several accounts of the content and implications of the principle that have been put into use within the context of this study.  For instance, in all stages of the study, the patients were given the liberty to opt out of the research. Through the issuance of informed consent documents and explaining to them the conduct and content of the study, they were sufficiently empowered to determine whether or not they would like to chat their own path by either remaining or opting out of the research. In view of this phenomenon, it would be deduced that it is the research subject who ultimately, following evaluation of all relevant information offered by the researchers, has the authority to decide whether or not to consent to the research. The principle of self-determination raises many fundamental questions. One such question revolves around who should self-determination be applicable to. In this study, the main subjects of self determination are the participants of the research. They are the HIV/AIDS patients who were interviewed on their psychological coping skills. Since a right to self-determination is often traditionally ascribed only to people with sufficient decision-making capabilities, one major issue that confronts many researchers is what it takes for a patient to be above the recommended threshold. Based on this standard, it is not clear in this study whether or not the HIV patient populations that were sampled were above the recommended normal mental threshold that is required of them to make informed decision on whether or not they should take part in the research. However, it can still be implied that they were mentally upright at the time of decision-making based on the nature of the data that have been gathered. 

When it comes to self-determination, real-world decision-making capabilities can be temporarily extended in that it broadly takes some significant period of time from the point at which the researcher determines that there is a consent decision that should be made, and that the patient is mentally fit or able to make it (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   Moreover, such a situation should extent to the point at which the subject is asked about their views. Such a temporal element of decision-making raises normative questions. For instance, it may not be clear under what situations and length of time the researcher should wait in order to get the feedback from the subject on the decisions that they have made regarding participation in the research. 

Finally, the principle of justice in research can also be used to analyze the ethical standards that were used in the study. The right to justice requires the researcher to exercise equity in the distribution of the benefits of the research. These include the benefits, costs, and resources. The key justice principles in a study include: promotion of equal share, giving each person in accordance with heir efforts, rewarding each individual according to their contributions, and issuing gains made out of the research according to merits (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). In almost all forms, clinical trials require the active participation of human subjects and entail clinical interventions that are comprised of various procedures. However, this study only engaged human subjects in the interviewing process alone. Still, the performance of a study involving human subject can be beneficial to the economy and the whole society, especially the participating country, thereby generating employment opportunities and promoting local scientific and technological progress through the scientific data found and studied in collaboration with many research centers (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). The financial and economic gains of this particular study have not yet been determined. However, its insights can be used to develop interventions that help to promote psychological wellbeing of persons living with HIV/AIDS. In so doing, the study can immensely improve their quality of life. 

Ethical Scientific Integrity

The credibility of a researcher or author is very critical in assessing the authenticity and quality of a specific research work. The personal details of the authors who developed this research work have not been provided in the journal article. However, there are other standards that can still be used to determine the credibility and level of suitability of the researchers to undertake the above study. For instance, the authors have revealed at the end of the article that their study was funded by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Culture and Education in the Republic of Indonesia. Based on this standard alone, it can be deduced that the authors have the necessary academic credentials and intellectual acumen or capacity to undertake such a study. In addition, the mere fact that the study was approved by these higher educational bodies raises the credibility of the authors. Another factor that raises the credibility of this particular study is that its findings were assessed and later published by the Research HIV Nursing, which is a widely known reputable international journal that publishes studies on HIV research. 

Plagiarism is one of the ethical issues in research that are hardly ever mentioned. However, its violations can have far-reaching consequences on the credibility and authenticity of a specific body of knowledge. Plagiarism can be defined as the unethical practice of stealing and passing off ideas or group of words as one’s own (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). Plagiarism is also the act of utilizing someone’s ideas and works and pretending to be one’s own. In light of the above, there are various ways in which plagiarism manifests itself in research. For instance, many researchers often fail to recognize the originators of their collection of words. However, this specific study can be said to have passed plagiarism test. First, the body section of the study has various in-text citations, indicating that the authors acknowledged the sources or originators of the ideas that were sued in the study (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  In addition, all the in-text citations have their corresponding bibliographic citations. As such, the authors do not have a case of plagiarism or copyright violation. 

Fabrication and falsification are some of the cardinal malpractices ion research conduct. They are commonly regarded as the key concerns in averting research misconduct. Any deviation or departure from such standards often undermines the integrity of a specific body of research for an individual or organization as a whole (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Falsification can be described as the practice of altering or omitting research findings to support certain claims, hypotheses, as well as other data. This can include the act of manipulating study instrumentation, materials, or procedures. Usually, manipulations of images or representations in a way that distorts the figures or data or reads too much between the lines can also be regarded as an act of falsification (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). The process of identifying a case of falsification or fabrication is often a complex one. As such, it was not possible for this specific study to detect any case of falsification. This is because the main data that were being explored were primarily qualitative and they were derived from the interview responses. In the same way, it was not easy to detect any case of outright fabrication. Fabrication is the development of or inclusion of data, observations, or characterizations that never took place during the collection of data. Fabrications are likely to take place during the process of filling out the entire of an experiment runs (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Moreover, the researchers might come up with claims on the basis of incomplete or presumed findings, which are regarded as outright forms of fabrication. 

Institutional Review Board

Details on the Institutional Review Board (IRB) pertaining to this study have not been written in the article. However, the researchers indicate that they passed through the due process of informed consent and other ethical standards before they were approved to participate in the study. In addition, the study was approved by the Ministry of Higher Education, although such a ministry may or may not develop an IRB to assess the ethical suitability of the researchers. Therefore, it is not easy to determine whether or not the above study was approved by IRB. However, the researchers’ use of human subjects was not experimental in nature. Rather, use of human subjects in this study was minimized to data collection process through interviews. 

The absence of details regarding the IRB in this study calls for the need for future researchers to report as to whether or not their studies were approved by an ethics body. All individual organizations or sponsors may demand that all studies, irrespective of their sources of funding, be assessed and approved by an IRB (Whitney, 2015). An IRB has the specific power and authority over the nature of the research within its jurisdiction. For instance, no clinical research may be approved to stat enrolling participants until it has been given the green light by the IRB. The IRB primarily has the authority to approve, dismiss, or halt all research activities that fall within its jurisdictions in accordance with the relevant government regulations and institutional standards and procedures. The IRB also ensures that a given research meets the needed ethical standards by demanding for modifications in processes, protocols as well as previously approved studies (Whitney, 2015). Furthermore, the IRB has the power and authority to demand that participants in a specific research be granted any extra information that will enable them to make informed decisions to participate in the study. 

One of the most important documentations that the IRB may require is the informed consent form. While researchers who indicate that they provided participants with informed consent might have gone through the IRB, it might not be the case in all situations. All institutions that take part in the research process that engage human subjects are often tasked with the responsibility of identifying an IRB to assess and approve such studies (Whitney, 2015). The IRB is charged with the responsibility of adhering to the requirements and standards recommended by the Office for Human Research Protections. Many study sites may be under the jurisdiction of more than one IRB. Then IRB plays a significant role in safeguarding the rights, safety, and wellbeing of all human study participants. The IRB meets this responsibility by assessing the full research plan for a specific research study in order to ensure that it meets the standards that have been recommended by local and international codes of research ethics (Whitney, 2015). Moreover, the IRB undertakes a confirmation and approval that the study plan does not expose human subjects to unreasonable risks. In this particular study, human subjects are not exposed to unreasonable risks because their role in the research is to simply explain how they psychologically cope with the news of their diagnosis with HIV/ AIDS. 

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the main ethical practice that has been extensively observed by the researchers in this study. For instance, after selecting the populations to participate in the study, the participants were informed regarding the conduct of the research. Thereafter, the researchers report that the participants consented to the proposals to participate in the interview. The researchers also indicate that the study participants were given the opportunity to opt out of the research at any stage if they so wished. Therefore, it can be deduced that the study adhered to the recommended informed consent procedures and standards. 

Informed consent can be described as the voluntary acceptance by a study subject to participate in a research (Minor, 2015). Thus, informed consent should not be treated simplistically as a form that is signed but a process. As a process, informed consent is regarded as an essentiality before registering a participa

 
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Ethical Conduct of Research; Infections disease: a global perspective

  

Ethical Conduct of Research

power point from this document, 15 slides

Introduction

Depending on the context of the study, researchers often encounter ethical dilemmas that are associated with respect for privacy, establishment of honest and open interactions, and avoidance of misrepresentation. From an ethical standpoint, such challenging circumstances may surface if researchers are grappling with conflicting issues and have to choose between different methodological approaches in complex circumstances. In such circumstances, disagreements among different components including participants, researchers, researchers’ disciplines, the financing organization, and the society might be inevitable. Therefore, there are numerous ethical concerns that should be taken into account when undertaking studies that deal with human subjects. Understanding ethical principles can guide researchers to conduct studies that safeguard the wellbeing of human subjects.

Overview of the Research

In a research work titled Resilience of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Indonesia: a Phenomenological Study, Kumboyono et al. (2018) observe that HIV/ AIDS is among the most prevalent and expanding communicable diseases on the planet. The number of individuals who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS continues to skyrocket every year in Indonesia and other parts of the world. According to Kumboyono et al. (2018), individuals who suffer from HIV/AIDS often plunge themselves into a series of crises, which indicate the challenges of living with the chronic pathological condition. As such, resilience is one distinct phenomenon that is common among persons living with the diseases Indonesia, a pattern that indicates the results of current health management and expectations of HIV/AIDS patients for better and improved health outcomes. In light of this concern, Kumboyono et al. (2018) undertook a study that sought to examine the mechanism of resilience in Indonesian people living with HIV/AIDS and the factors that influence their specific mechanisms. 

Using qualitative phenomenological design, the researchers sampled a total of 27 people living with HIV/AIDS from a primary health care institution in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. The participants were selected from different socioeconomic, gender, and sexual orientations. The researchers informed participants about the conduct and processes involved in the study, resulting in their consent to participate in the interview process. The findings of the study indicated that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS reflects the onset of psychological and social distress. Moreover, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) found that the spiritual response that follows diagnosis is a state that is characterized by crises. As a consequence, the coping strategies and understanding of life by HIV patients is a definite sign on resilience. Based on these findings, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) infer that HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection that has the potential to induce the unique mechanism of resilience within the Indonesian social system. Therefore, future health and management of persons living with HIV/ AIDS will be needed to enhance and encourage this strategy to guide persons living with HIV into a more comfortable and healthy way of life. 

Ethical Issues in Research

The relationships and interactions established between the researcher and participants in a study can potentially generate a wide range of varying ethical issues. While ethical codes, policies and principles are highly significant and beneficial, like any set of norms, they do not cater for all situations. Thus, they often have a high potentiality of conflicting. Nonetheless, the vast majority of decisions often entail the straightforward application of ethical codes and practices. Ethics is one of the most important issues that are commonly mentioned by educators in the scientific community. Ethical misconducts most commonly stem from environmental and individual causes. For instance, when people who are morally weak or unaware of the rules participate in research, ethical violations are bound to occur. Thus, many significant forms of the ethical deviations that are observed in many scientific studies are attributed to the fact that some researchers are oblivious of the ethical norms of scientific research. 

Protection of Human Rights

The most important ethical principles in research focus on protecting human rights when dealing with human subjects. Principles of protection of human rights during research emerged out of a dark history that was littered with accounts of abuses undertaken in the name of medical research.  One of the most dreadful of these atrocities were undertaken by the Nazi physicians who utilized convicts for human experimentation (Avasthi et al. 2013). The unearthing of these experiments sent ripples of shock across the world, a situation that resulted in the development of the Nuremberg Code to deter recurrence of similar episodes. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code of ethics in clinical research that laid down the guidelines for research dealing with human subjects. This policy made laid down principles, guidelines and standards to be followed by researchers and make voluntary consent essential, allowed subjects withdraw from the experimentation at any time, banned experiments that could lead to major injuries or fatalities of the subjects, and made it mandatory to have preclinical data prior to the experimentation of humans. However, the Nuremberg Code failed to end unethical practices conducted by certain researchers (Avasthi et al. 2013). As a consequence, a collection of guidelines was developed by the 18th World Medical Association General Assembly, also referred to as the Declaration of Helsinki. 

The Helsinki Declaration had a collection of principles, which emphasize on informed consent, confidentiality of data, vulnerable populations, and requirements of a protocol, including the scientific justifications for the study. All researches had to be reviewed based on these standards by the ethics committee for a research to be declared as ethically fit (Avasthi et al. 2013).  However, it is during the time of the Helsinki Declaration that other major scandals continued such as the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in the United States. This malpractice raised concerns in the ethics community, thereby resulting in the establishment of the Belmont Report in 1979. The Belmont Report established the modern regulations and human rights principles associated with research dealing with human subjects in the United States and other parts of the world (Avasthi et al. 2013). Nonetheless, with the growing interest in pharmaceutical, health, and psychological research in the developing and the underdeveloped nations, the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health researchers designed the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects in 1982 (Avasthi et al. 2013).  Thereafter, other professional research organizations such as the American Psychological Organization (APA), have designed similar standards that relate to protection of human rights in studies that deal with human subjects. 

The Five Human Rights that Must Be Protected

There are five cardinal ethical principles that reflect the five human rights that must be protected during research. These principles include: nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice, as well as right to self-determination. The principle of nonmaleficence states that the researcher has an obligation to avoid infliction of harm on human subjects in a study. This principle is closely interlinked with the maxim primum non nocere (‘first do no harm’). The principle of nonmaleficence prohibits killing, causing pain or suffering, incapacitating, and causing an offense on the human subject during research. Therefore, this principle encourages researchers to act in ways that do not cause physical or mental harm on the research participants. More precisely, the principle states that researchers should not cause avoidable or intentional harm. This should incorporate avoidance of any possible risks associated with harm (Jahn, 2013). Researchers should avoid intentional and unintentional violations of this ethical principle. For instance, a researcher does not necessarily intend to harm in order to violate this principle. As a matter of fact, knowingly or unknowingly subjecting a research participant to unnecessary risk amounts to violation of the principle of nonmaleficense. 

The principle of nonmaleficense has been applied to this study in many ways. One of the primary focuses of the study was to investigate the coping skills of people living with HIV/AIDS. Thus, when analyzing these coping skills and strategies, the researcher must engage in a one-on-one interview with the participants (Jahn, 2013). In the process, questions that trigger psychological and emotional pain might be asked unknowingly. Such situations are likely to occur in the study, especially when dealing with participants who suffer from HIV/AIDS. In almost all parts of the world, HIV/AIDS patients often witness numerous cases of social stigma. These negative experiences may interfere with the manner in which they respond to interview questions. Therefore, it is the task of the researcher to develop strategies that can help to minimize any possible mental and emotional paint that the persons living with HIV are likely o experience as a result of the data gathering and interview questions. Many studies on nonmaleficense often narrow down to physical harm (Chagani, 2014). However, the concept of harm is broad and dynamic, incorporating all dimensions of human life, including the mental and physical realms. In this particular study, there is no serious physical interaction with the participants that might cause physical pain, harm or death. 

The concept of harm is broad and takes many forms. They range from physical and emotional injuries to deprivation of property or violations of human rights. Within the research context, the primary emphasis of harm is often linked to a narrower definition, such as pain, disability, or death (Chagani, 2014). Within these standards, the research has observed avoidance of harm since all the participants who took part in the study did not die, sustain any physical injury or disability stemming from the research. However, harm can be strongly within the eye of the beholder, and a wider definition of harm is often required during ethical considerations. In light of the above, more than one level of harm may come into play in a situation. For instance, the researchers are more likely to inflict mental pain and suffering in the participants by asking questions related to the way in which they responded to the news that they had been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. However, in such a situation, the researchers have imposed one harm in order to avoid a greater harm. Nonetheless, in all situations, researchers should be prohibited from acting in ways that are likely to generate undue risks or needless harm to participants. 

The principle of beneficence is a moral obligation to act for the benefit of others. In this respect, any research work that observes this principle should be designed in a way that is meant to promote societal good and wellbeing (Jahn, 2013). There are various ways in which this principle comes into play. For instance, the principle suggests that researchers should act in a manner that provides benefits to the society, and balances benefits with risks or harms. The principle of beneficence is broad and multifaceted. It includes protecting and defending the rights of others, preventing harm from occurring to others, removing conditions that will cause harm, and supporting persons with disabilities. Furthermore, this principle advocates for rescuing persons in danger during and after research. In furtherance of these ethical standards advocated by beneficence, there are various ways in which the study can be assessed. For instance, the outcomes of the study seeks to improve health professionals’ understanding of HIV/AIDS patients’ coping skills and strategies and the psychological pain that they undergo in the process of coping. As a result, it provides health professionals and psychological researchers with insights into ways of developing interventions that are meant to address mental health problems that affect HIV patients. 

The study encourages researchers to design interventions that are meant to enable HIV patients to bounce back to their normal psychological and social norms after receiving adversities as a consequence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Indeed, the nature of resilience among individuals who are diagnosed with chronic infections can be grouped into the crisis and survival stages. The former is characterized by the onset of a psychological and physical struggle that follows after diagnosis with several struggles. This study can inform future evidence-based practices that seek to design cognitive and counseling strategies for improving the quality of life of persons living with HIV/ AIDS. As such, the study fulfills the ethical principle of benefiting the participants and the society at large by promoting greater good and wellbeing for persons living with HIV/AIDS. 

The ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficense are multidimensional and intertwined. These dimensions include positivity and utility. Positivity can be described as the benefits that are gained after undertaking the research, which outweighs its costs. For instance, timely understanding of the mental and pain that HIV patients undergo after diagnosis can help to reduce major depression and help to cope will with the disease. On the other hand, utility refers to the benefits of undertaking an action that balances its costs. For instance, in a clinical research that explores psychological pain that patients undergo, the patient control group may only receive psychological treatment-as-usual instead of the experimental treatment that could generate extra gains. Beneficence and nonmaleficence are fundamental ethical principles that are essential in guiding the clinical practice and research in both psychology and healthcare. Beneficence encourages the researcher to exercise responsibility of promoting the wellbeing of the patients, especially participants in clinical trials, often by researching and administering therapeutic interventions with the highest possibility of positive patient responsivity. One of the biggest ethical dilemmas that psychologists confront is the need to strike a balance between beneficence and nonmaleficence. This balance may sometimes entail weighing the possible benefits and limitations or net risks associated with a specific research. In all jurisdictions, researchers are required by law to inform their participants or patients of the possible risks and gains of a research, procedure, or testy. This move allows the study participants to make an informed decision, with theirs being the burden to assess the potential costs and benefits of the available alternatives. 

Autonomy and self-determination are other fundamental human right that the participants should be granted during a research. Thus, respect for autonomy is a practice that obligates the researcher to respect the decisions of adults who have the capacity to make their own decisions. There are three conditions that must be existent for an action by the research subject to be regarded as autonomous. They include: intentionality, understanding, as well as complete absence of controlling influences that determine the subject’s decisions. In order to meet the ethical obligation of autonomy, there are several moral standards or guidelines that can be used. They include: telling the truth, respecting the privacy of others, protecting the confidentiality of information, as well s seeking consent from the participant before commencing the data gathering process. Respect for autonomy represents an obligation to the researcher to respect the decision making capabilities of the participants. It also denotes the provision of choices and alternatives to the subject so that they can practice self-determination. In this study, the participants’ rights to autonomy were observed by providing them with all the relevant information about the study and giving them the opportunity to decide whether or not to participate in the research. This process was primarily exercised through issuance of informed consent forms to the subjects. 

Within the context of this study, the subjects’ autonomy were respected by first giving them all sufficient information that are necessary for the research and then giving them the opportunity to consent or reject proposals to participate in it. Based on this practice, it is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure that the subject is sufficiently competent to practice autonomy. By competency, a research subject should be not only conscious, but also possess the sufficient knowledge and understanding to gain and maintain the information offered to take relevant decisions. Along with this view, the principle also requires the researcher to offer complete information to the participant and not hide anything so that the patient may seek to meet an obligation or can desire to spend some valuable time with family members and friends. The subject, after knowing the truth, may desire to do a hobby with which he or she desired to do. The participant may also seek to select other options of the research that may not be available or provided by the researchers. However, it is the right of human beings to be treated in a way that does not cause pain and anguish. Therefore, the researcher should go by the data gathering method in which the participants are comfortable with in order to avoid restraining the subject from exercising autonomy. In addition, in many jurisdictions, going ahead with a research against patients’ rights and decisions even if it is meant for their goodwill, is considered as an illegal decision. Therefore, a comprehensive justification on legal is often needed to undertake a research involving subjects who are patients against their knowledge and will. The principle of beneficence supports the autonomy of the patients as in the case of telling the truth to the research subject and respecting the subject’s autonomy can go a long way in generating the desired benefits to the participants, who will feel more confident in determining their course of life. 

Further, self-determination is a human right that is also relevant and interrelated to the right to autonomy. Self-determination is a right and principle that plays a critical role in the contemporary research ethics associated with human subject. Put simply, this principle suggests that ultimately, it is the participant who should make the final decision as to whether or not to accept a proposed research process (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).  While this principle is widely discussed in many academic works, one of its most significant elements has often been overlooked- the fact that real-world decision making is temporarily extended. In this respect, decision-making is a process that broadly takes a significant period of time from the time at which the researcher determines that there is a need for the subject to participate in the clinical research and that there is a decision that should be made. Moreover, the participant should be able to make it to the point at which they are actually asked for their views. The principle of self-determination is broadly viewed as the center of research ethics and trials in the health sector (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   It is a principle that is commonly codified in legal frameworks and standards across different parts of the world, and has had a major effect on researchers’ understanding of ways of dealing with several legal and ethical issues associated with handling human subjects in research. 

There are several accounts of the content and implications of the principle that have been put into use within the context of this study.  For instance, in all stages of the study, the patients were given the liberty to opt out of the research. Through the issuance of informed consent documents and explaining to them the conduct and content of the study, they were sufficiently empowered to determine whether or not they would like to chat their own path by either remaining or opting out of the research. In view of this phenomenon, it would be deduced that it is the research subject who ultimately, following evaluation of all relevant information offered by the researchers, has the authority to decide whether or not to consent to the research. The principle of self-determination raises many fundamental questions. One such question revolves around who should self-determination be applicable to. In this study, the main subjects of self determination are the participants of the research. They are the HIV/AIDS patients who were interviewed on their psychological coping skills. Since a right to self-determination is often traditionally ascribed only to people with sufficient decision-making capabilities, one major issue that confronts many researchers is what it takes for a patient to be above the recommended threshold. Based on this standard, it is not clear in this study whether or not the HIV patient populations that were sampled were above the recommended normal mental threshold that is required of them to make informed decision on whether or not they should take part in the research. However, it can still be implied that they were mentally upright at the time of decision-making based on the nature of the data that have been gathered. 

When it comes to self-determination, real-world decision-making capabilities can be temporarily extended in that it broadly takes some significant period of time from the point at which the researcher determines that there is a consent decision that should be made, and that the patient is mentally fit or able to make it (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   Moreover, such a situation should extent to the point at which the subject is asked about their views. Such a temporal element of decision-making raises normative questions. For instance, it may not be clear under what situations and length of time the researcher should wait in order to get the feedback from the subject on the decisions that they have made regarding participation in the research. 

Finally, the principle of justice in research can also be used to analyze the ethical standards that were used in the study. The right to justice requires the researcher to exercise equity in the distribution of the benefits of the research. These include the benefits, costs, and resources. The key justice principles in a study include: promotion of equal share, giving each person in accordance with heir efforts, rewarding each individual according to their contributions, and issuing gains made out of the research according to merits (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). In almost all forms, clinical trials require the active participation of human subjects and entail clinical interventions that are comprised of various procedures. However, this study only engaged human subjects in the interviewing process alone. Still, the performance of a study involving human subject can be beneficial to the economy and the whole society, especially the participating country, thereby generating employment opportunities and promoting local scientific and technological progress through the scientific data found and studied in collaboration with many research centers (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). The financial and economic gains of this particular study have not yet been determined. However, its insights can be used to develop interventions that help to promote psychological wellbeing of persons living with HIV/AIDS. In so doing, the study can immensely improve their quality of life. 

Ethical Scientific Integrity

The credibility of a researcher or author is very critical in assessing the authenticity and quality of a specific research work. The personal details of the authors who developed this research work have not been provided in the journal article. However, there are other standards that can still be used to determine the credibility and level of suitability of the researchers to undertake the above study. For instance, the authors have revealed at the end of the article that their study was funded by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Culture and Education in the Republic of Indonesia. Based on this standard alone, it can be deduced that the authors have the necessary academic credentials and intellectual acumen or capacity to undertake such a study. In addition, the mere fact that the study was approved by these higher educational bodies raises the credibility of the authors. Another factor that raises the credibility of this particular study is that its findings were assessed and later published by the Research HIV Nursing, which is a widely known reputable international journal that publishes studies on HIV research. 

Plagiarism is one of the ethical issues in research that are hardly ever mentioned. However, its violations can have far-reaching consequences on the credibility and authenticity of a specific body of knowledge. Plagiarism can be defined as the unethical practice of stealing and passing off ideas or group of words as one’s own (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). Plagiarism is also the act of utilizing someone’s ideas and works and pretending to be one’s own. In light of the above, there are various ways in which plagiarism manifests itself in research. For instance, many researchers often fail to recognize the originators of their collection of words. However, this specific study can be said to have passed plagiarism test. First, the body section of the study has various in-text citations, indicating that the authors acknowledged the sources or originators of the ideas that were sued in the study (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  In addition, all the in-text citations have their corresponding bibliographic citations. As such, the authors do not have a case of plagiarism or copyright violation. 

Fabrication and falsification are some of the cardinal malpractices ion research conduct. They are commonly regarded as the key concerns in averting research misconduct. Any deviation or departure from such standards often undermines the integrity of a specific body of research for an individual or organization as a whole (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Falsification can be described as the practice of altering or omitting research findings to support certain claims, hypotheses, as well as other data. This can include the act of manipulating study instrumentation, materials, or procedures. Usually, manipulations of images or representations in a way that distorts the figures or data or reads too much between the lines can also be regarded as an act of falsification (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). The process of identifying a case of falsification or fabrication is often a complex one. As such, it was not possible for this specific study to detect any case of falsification. This is because the main data that were being explored were primarily qualitative and they were derived from the interview responses. In the same way, it was not easy to detect any case of outright fabrication. Fabrication is the development of or inclusion of data, observations, or characterizations that never took place during the collection of data. Fabrications are likely to take place during the process of filling out the entire of an experiment runs (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Moreover, the researchers might come up with claims on the basis of incomplete or presumed findings, which are regarded as outright forms of fabrication. 

Institutional Review Board

Details on the Institutional Review Board (IRB) pertaining to this study have not been written in the article. However, the researchers indicate that they passed through the due process of informed consent and other ethical standards before they were approved to participate in the study. In addition, the study was approved by the Ministry of Higher Education, although such a ministry may or may not develop an IRB to assess the ethical suitability of the researchers. Therefore, it is not easy to determine whether or not the above study was approved by IRB. However, the researchers’ use of human subjects was not experimental in nature. Rather, use of human subjects in this study was minimized to data collection process through interviews. 

The absence of details regarding the IRB in this study calls for the need for future researchers to report as to whether or not their studies were approved by an ethics body. All individual organizations or sponsors may demand that all studies, irrespective of their sources of funding, be assessed and approved by an IRB (Whitney, 2015). An IRB has the specific power and authority over the nature of the research within its jurisdiction. For instance, no clinical research may be approved to stat enrolling participants until it has been given the green light by the IRB. The IRB primarily has the authority to approve, dismiss, or halt all research activities that fall within its jurisdictions in accordance with the relevant government regulations and institutional standards and procedures. The IRB also ensures that a given research meets the needed ethical standards by demanding for modifications in processes, protocols as well as previously approved studies (Whitney, 2015). Furthermore, the IRB has the power and authority to demand that participants in a specific research be granted any extra information that will enable them to make informed decisions to participate in the study. 

One of the most important documentations that the IRB may require is the informed consent form. While researchers who indicate that they provided participants with informed consent might have gone through the IRB, it might not be the case in all situations. All institutions that take part in the research process that engage human subjects are often tasked with the responsibility of identifying an IRB to assess and approve such studies (Whitney, 2015). The IRB is charged with the responsibility of adhering to the requirements and standards recommended by the Office for Human Research Protections. Many study sites may be under the jurisdiction of more than one IRB. Then IRB plays a significant role in safeguarding the rights, safety, and wellbeing of all human study participants. The IRB meets this responsibility by assessing the full research plan for a specific research study in order to ensure that it meets the standards that have been recommended by local and international codes of research ethics (Whitney, 2015). Moreover, the IRB undertakes a confirmation and approval that the study plan does not expose human subjects to unreasonable risks. In this particular study, human subjects are not exposed to unreasonable risks because their role in the research is to simply explain how they psychologically cope with the news of their diagnosis with HIV/ AIDS. 

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the main ethical practice that has been extensively observed by the researchers in this study. For instance, after selecting the populations to participate in the study, the participants were informed regarding the conduct of the research. Thereafter, the researchers report that the participants consented to the proposals to participate in the interview. The researchers also indicate that the study participants were given the opportunity to opt out of the research at any stage if they so wished. Therefore, it can be deduced that the study adhered to the recommended informed consent procedures and standards. 

Informed consent can be described as the voluntary acceptance by a study subject to participate in a research (Minor, 2015). Thus, informed consent should not be treated simplistically as a form that is signed but a process. As a process, informed consent is regarded as an essentiality before registering a participa

 
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Ethical Conduct of Research; Infections disease: a global perspective

  

Ethical Conduct of Research

power point from this document, 15 slides

Introduction

Depending on the context of the study, researchers often encounter ethical dilemmas that are associated with respect for privacy, establishment of honest and open interactions, and avoidance of misrepresentation. From an ethical standpoint, such challenging circumstances may surface if researchers are grappling with conflicting issues and have to choose between different methodological approaches in complex circumstances. In such circumstances, disagreements among different components including participants, researchers, researchers’ disciplines, the financing organization, and the society might be inevitable. Therefore, there are numerous ethical concerns that should be taken into account when undertaking studies that deal with human subjects. Understanding ethical principles can guide researchers to conduct studies that safeguard the wellbeing of human subjects.

Overview of the Research

In a research work titled Resilience of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Indonesia: a Phenomenological Study, Kumboyono et al. (2018) observe that HIV/ AIDS is among the most prevalent and expanding communicable diseases on the planet. The number of individuals who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS continues to skyrocket every year in Indonesia and other parts of the world. According to Kumboyono et al. (2018), individuals who suffer from HIV/AIDS often plunge themselves into a series of crises, which indicate the challenges of living with the chronic pathological condition. As such, resilience is one distinct phenomenon that is common among persons living with the diseases Indonesia, a pattern that indicates the results of current health management and expectations of HIV/AIDS patients for better and improved health outcomes. In light of this concern, Kumboyono et al. (2018) undertook a study that sought to examine the mechanism of resilience in Indonesian people living with HIV/AIDS and the factors that influence their specific mechanisms. 

Using qualitative phenomenological design, the researchers sampled a total of 27 people living with HIV/AIDS from a primary health care institution in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. The participants were selected from different socioeconomic, gender, and sexual orientations. The researchers informed participants about the conduct and processes involved in the study, resulting in their consent to participate in the interview process. The findings of the study indicated that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS reflects the onset of psychological and social distress. Moreover, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) found that the spiritual response that follows diagnosis is a state that is characterized by crises. As a consequence, the coping strategies and understanding of life by HIV patients is a definite sign on resilience. Based on these findings, Kumbomoyo et al. (2018) infer that HIV/AIDS is a chronic infection that has the potential to induce the unique mechanism of resilience within the Indonesian social system. Therefore, future health and management of persons living with HIV/ AIDS will be needed to enhance and encourage this strategy to guide persons living with HIV into a more comfortable and healthy way of life. 

Ethical Issues in Research

The relationships and interactions established between the researcher and participants in a study can potentially generate a wide range of varying ethical issues. While ethical codes, policies and principles are highly significant and beneficial, like any set of norms, they do not cater for all situations. Thus, they often have a high potentiality of conflicting. Nonetheless, the vast majority of decisions often entail the straightforward application of ethical codes and practices. Ethics is one of the most important issues that are commonly mentioned by educators in the scientific community. Ethical misconducts most commonly stem from environmental and individual causes. For instance, when people who are morally weak or unaware of the rules participate in research, ethical violations are bound to occur. Thus, many significant forms of the ethical deviations that are observed in many scientific studies are attributed to the fact that some researchers are oblivious of the ethical norms of scientific research. 

Protection of Human Rights

The most important ethical principles in research focus on protecting human rights when dealing with human subjects. Principles of protection of human rights during research emerged out of a dark history that was littered with accounts of abuses undertaken in the name of medical research.  One of the most dreadful of these atrocities were undertaken by the Nazi physicians who utilized convicts for human experimentation (Avasthi et al. 2013). The unearthing of these experiments sent ripples of shock across the world, a situation that resulted in the development of the Nuremberg Code to deter recurrence of similar episodes. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code of ethics in clinical research that laid down the guidelines for research dealing with human subjects. This policy made laid down principles, guidelines and standards to be followed by researchers and make voluntary consent essential, allowed subjects withdraw from the experimentation at any time, banned experiments that could lead to major injuries or fatalities of the subjects, and made it mandatory to have preclinical data prior to the experimentation of humans. However, the Nuremberg Code failed to end unethical practices conducted by certain researchers (Avasthi et al. 2013). As a consequence, a collection of guidelines was developed by the 18th World Medical Association General Assembly, also referred to as the Declaration of Helsinki. 

The Helsinki Declaration had a collection of principles, which emphasize on informed consent, confidentiality of data, vulnerable populations, and requirements of a protocol, including the scientific justifications for the study. All researches had to be reviewed based on these standards by the ethics committee for a research to be declared as ethically fit (Avasthi et al. 2013).  However, it is during the time of the Helsinki Declaration that other major scandals continued such as the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in the United States. This malpractice raised concerns in the ethics community, thereby resulting in the establishment of the Belmont Report in 1979. The Belmont Report established the modern regulations and human rights principles associated with research dealing with human subjects in the United States and other parts of the world (Avasthi et al. 2013). Nonetheless, with the growing interest in pharmaceutical, health, and psychological research in the developing and the underdeveloped nations, the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health researchers designed the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects in 1982 (Avasthi et al. 2013).  Thereafter, other professional research organizations such as the American Psychological Organization (APA), have designed similar standards that relate to protection of human rights in studies that deal with human subjects. 

The Five Human Rights that Must Be Protected

There are five cardinal ethical principles that reflect the five human rights that must be protected during research. These principles include: nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice, as well as right to self-determination. The principle of nonmaleficence states that the researcher has an obligation to avoid infliction of harm on human subjects in a study. This principle is closely interlinked with the maxim primum non nocere (‘first do no harm’). The principle of nonmaleficence prohibits killing, causing pain or suffering, incapacitating, and causing an offense on the human subject during research. Therefore, this principle encourages researchers to act in ways that do not cause physical or mental harm on the research participants. More precisely, the principle states that researchers should not cause avoidable or intentional harm. This should incorporate avoidance of any possible risks associated with harm (Jahn, 2013). Researchers should avoid intentional and unintentional violations of this ethical principle. For instance, a researcher does not necessarily intend to harm in order to violate this principle. As a matter of fact, knowingly or unknowingly subjecting a research participant to unnecessary risk amounts to violation of the principle of nonmaleficense. 

The principle of nonmaleficense has been applied to this study in many ways. One of the primary focuses of the study was to investigate the coping skills of people living with HIV/AIDS. Thus, when analyzing these coping skills and strategies, the researcher must engage in a one-on-one interview with the participants (Jahn, 2013). In the process, questions that trigger psychological and emotional pain might be asked unknowingly. Such situations are likely to occur in the study, especially when dealing with participants who suffer from HIV/AIDS. In almost all parts of the world, HIV/AIDS patients often witness numerous cases of social stigma. These negative experiences may interfere with the manner in which they respond to interview questions. Therefore, it is the task of the researcher to develop strategies that can help to minimize any possible mental and emotional paint that the persons living with HIV are likely o experience as a result of the data gathering and interview questions. Many studies on nonmaleficense often narrow down to physical harm (Chagani, 2014). However, the concept of harm is broad and dynamic, incorporating all dimensions of human life, including the mental and physical realms. In this particular study, there is no serious physical interaction with the participants that might cause physical pain, harm or death. 

The concept of harm is broad and takes many forms. They range from physical and emotional injuries to deprivation of property or violations of human rights. Within the research context, the primary emphasis of harm is often linked to a narrower definition, such as pain, disability, or death (Chagani, 2014). Within these standards, the research has observed avoidance of harm since all the participants who took part in the study did not die, sustain any physical injury or disability stemming from the research. However, harm can be strongly within the eye of the beholder, and a wider definition of harm is often required during ethical considerations. In light of the above, more than one level of harm may come into play in a situation. For instance, the researchers are more likely to inflict mental pain and suffering in the participants by asking questions related to the way in which they responded to the news that they had been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. However, in such a situation, the researchers have imposed one harm in order to avoid a greater harm. Nonetheless, in all situations, researchers should be prohibited from acting in ways that are likely to generate undue risks or needless harm to participants. 

The principle of beneficence is a moral obligation to act for the benefit of others. In this respect, any research work that observes this principle should be designed in a way that is meant to promote societal good and wellbeing (Jahn, 2013). There are various ways in which this principle comes into play. For instance, the principle suggests that researchers should act in a manner that provides benefits to the society, and balances benefits with risks or harms. The principle of beneficence is broad and multifaceted. It includes protecting and defending the rights of others, preventing harm from occurring to others, removing conditions that will cause harm, and supporting persons with disabilities. Furthermore, this principle advocates for rescuing persons in danger during and after research. In furtherance of these ethical standards advocated by beneficence, there are various ways in which the study can be assessed. For instance, the outcomes of the study seeks to improve health professionals’ understanding of HIV/AIDS patients’ coping skills and strategies and the psychological pain that they undergo in the process of coping. As a result, it provides health professionals and psychological researchers with insights into ways of developing interventions that are meant to address mental health problems that affect HIV patients. 

The study encourages researchers to design interventions that are meant to enable HIV patients to bounce back to their normal psychological and social norms after receiving adversities as a consequence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Indeed, the nature of resilience among individuals who are diagnosed with chronic infections can be grouped into the crisis and survival stages. The former is characterized by the onset of a psychological and physical struggle that follows after diagnosis with several struggles. This study can inform future evidence-based practices that seek to design cognitive and counseling strategies for improving the quality of life of persons living with HIV/ AIDS. As such, the study fulfills the ethical principle of benefiting the participants and the society at large by promoting greater good and wellbeing for persons living with HIV/AIDS. 

The ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficense are multidimensional and intertwined. These dimensions include positivity and utility. Positivity can be described as the benefits that are gained after undertaking the research, which outweighs its costs. For instance, timely understanding of the mental and pain that HIV patients undergo after diagnosis can help to reduce major depression and help to cope will with the disease. On the other hand, utility refers to the benefits of undertaking an action that balances its costs. For instance, in a clinical research that explores psychological pain that patients undergo, the patient control group may only receive psychological treatment-as-usual instead of the experimental treatment that could generate extra gains. Beneficence and nonmaleficence are fundamental ethical principles that are essential in guiding the clinical practice and research in both psychology and healthcare. Beneficence encourages the researcher to exercise responsibility of promoting the wellbeing of the patients, especially participants in clinical trials, often by researching and administering therapeutic interventions with the highest possibility of positive patient responsivity. One of the biggest ethical dilemmas that psychologists confront is the need to strike a balance between beneficence and nonmaleficence. This balance may sometimes entail weighing the possible benefits and limitations or net risks associated with a specific research. In all jurisdictions, researchers are required by law to inform their participants or patients of the possible risks and gains of a research, procedure, or testy. This move allows the study participants to make an informed decision, with theirs being the burden to assess the potential costs and benefits of the available alternatives. 

Autonomy and self-determination are other fundamental human right that the participants should be granted during a research. Thus, respect for autonomy is a practice that obligates the researcher to respect the decisions of adults who have the capacity to make their own decisions. There are three conditions that must be existent for an action by the research subject to be regarded as autonomous. They include: intentionality, understanding, as well as complete absence of controlling influences that determine the subject’s decisions. In order to meet the ethical obligation of autonomy, there are several moral standards or guidelines that can be used. They include: telling the truth, respecting the privacy of others, protecting the confidentiality of information, as well s seeking consent from the participant before commencing the data gathering process. Respect for autonomy represents an obligation to the researcher to respect the decision making capabilities of the participants. It also denotes the provision of choices and alternatives to the subject so that they can practice self-determination. In this study, the participants’ rights to autonomy were observed by providing them with all the relevant information about the study and giving them the opportunity to decide whether or not to participate in the research. This process was primarily exercised through issuance of informed consent forms to the subjects. 

Within the context of this study, the subjects’ autonomy were respected by first giving them all sufficient information that are necessary for the research and then giving them the opportunity to consent or reject proposals to participate in it. Based on this practice, it is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure that the subject is sufficiently competent to practice autonomy. By competency, a research subject should be not only conscious, but also possess the sufficient knowledge and understanding to gain and maintain the information offered to take relevant decisions. Along with this view, the principle also requires the researcher to offer complete information to the participant and not hide anything so that the patient may seek to meet an obligation or can desire to spend some valuable time with family members and friends. The subject, after knowing the truth, may desire to do a hobby with which he or she desired to do. The participant may also seek to select other options of the research that may not be available or provided by the researchers. However, it is the right of human beings to be treated in a way that does not cause pain and anguish. Therefore, the researcher should go by the data gathering method in which the participants are comfortable with in order to avoid restraining the subject from exercising autonomy. In addition, in many jurisdictions, going ahead with a research against patients’ rights and decisions even if it is meant for their goodwill, is considered as an illegal decision. Therefore, a comprehensive justification on legal is often needed to undertake a research involving subjects who are patients against their knowledge and will. The principle of beneficence supports the autonomy of the patients as in the case of telling the truth to the research subject and respecting the subject’s autonomy can go a long way in generating the desired benefits to the participants, who will feel more confident in determining their course of life. 

Further, self-determination is a human right that is also relevant and interrelated to the right to autonomy. Self-determination is a right and principle that plays a critical role in the contemporary research ethics associated with human subject. Put simply, this principle suggests that ultimately, it is the participant who should make the final decision as to whether or not to accept a proposed research process (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).  While this principle is widely discussed in many academic works, one of its most significant elements has often been overlooked- the fact that real-world decision making is temporarily extended. In this respect, decision-making is a process that broadly takes a significant period of time from the time at which the researcher determines that there is a need for the subject to participate in the clinical research and that there is a decision that should be made. Moreover, the participant should be able to make it to the point at which they are actually asked for their views. The principle of self-determination is broadly viewed as the center of research ethics and trials in the health sector (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   It is a principle that is commonly codified in legal frameworks and standards across different parts of the world, and has had a major effect on researchers’ understanding of ways of dealing with several legal and ethical issues associated with handling human subjects in research. 

There are several accounts of the content and implications of the principle that have been put into use within the context of this study.  For instance, in all stages of the study, the patients were given the liberty to opt out of the research. Through the issuance of informed consent documents and explaining to them the conduct and content of the study, they were sufficiently empowered to determine whether or not they would like to chat their own path by either remaining or opting out of the research. In view of this phenomenon, it would be deduced that it is the research subject who ultimately, following evaluation of all relevant information offered by the researchers, has the authority to decide whether or not to consent to the research. The principle of self-determination raises many fundamental questions. One such question revolves around who should self-determination be applicable to. In this study, the main subjects of self determination are the participants of the research. They are the HIV/AIDS patients who were interviewed on their psychological coping skills. Since a right to self-determination is often traditionally ascribed only to people with sufficient decision-making capabilities, one major issue that confronts many researchers is what it takes for a patient to be above the recommended threshold. Based on this standard, it is not clear in this study whether or not the HIV patient populations that were sampled were above the recommended normal mental threshold that is required of them to make informed decision on whether or not they should take part in the research. However, it can still be implied that they were mentally upright at the time of decision-making based on the nature of the data that have been gathered. 

When it comes to self-determination, real-world decision-making capabilities can be temporarily extended in that it broadly takes some significant period of time from the point at which the researcher determines that there is a consent decision that should be made, and that the patient is mentally fit or able to make it (Lindberg, Johansson & Broström, 2019).   Moreover, such a situation should extent to the point at which the subject is asked about their views. Such a temporal element of decision-making raises normative questions. For instance, it may not be clear under what situations and length of time the researcher should wait in order to get the feedback from the subject on the decisions that they have made regarding participation in the research. 

Finally, the principle of justice in research can also be used to analyze the ethical standards that were used in the study. The right to justice requires the researcher to exercise equity in the distribution of the benefits of the research. These include the benefits, costs, and resources. The key justice principles in a study include: promotion of equal share, giving each person in accordance with heir efforts, rewarding each individual according to their contributions, and issuing gains made out of the research according to merits (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). In almost all forms, clinical trials require the active participation of human subjects and entail clinical interventions that are comprised of various procedures. However, this study only engaged human subjects in the interviewing process alone. Still, the performance of a study involving human subject can be beneficial to the economy and the whole society, especially the participating country, thereby generating employment opportunities and promoting local scientific and technological progress through the scientific data found and studied in collaboration with many research centers (Silver, Ventura & Castro, 2016). The financial and economic gains of this particular study have not yet been determined. However, its insights can be used to develop interventions that help to promote psychological wellbeing of persons living with HIV/AIDS. In so doing, the study can immensely improve their quality of life. 

Ethical Scientific Integrity

The credibility of a researcher or author is very critical in assessing the authenticity and quality of a specific research work. The personal details of the authors who developed this research work have not been provided in the journal article. However, there are other standards that can still be used to determine the credibility and level of suitability of the researchers to undertake the above study. For instance, the authors have revealed at the end of the article that their study was funded by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Culture and Education in the Republic of Indonesia. Based on this standard alone, it can be deduced that the authors have the necessary academic credentials and intellectual acumen or capacity to undertake such a study. In addition, the mere fact that the study was approved by these higher educational bodies raises the credibility of the authors. Another factor that raises the credibility of this particular study is that its findings were assessed and later published by the Research HIV Nursing, which is a widely known reputable international journal that publishes studies on HIV research. 

Plagiarism is one of the ethical issues in research that are hardly ever mentioned. However, its violations can have far-reaching consequences on the credibility and authenticity of a specific body of knowledge. Plagiarism can be defined as the unethical practice of stealing and passing off ideas or group of words as one’s own (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). Plagiarism is also the act of utilizing someone’s ideas and works and pretending to be one’s own. In light of the above, there are various ways in which plagiarism manifests itself in research. For instance, many researchers often fail to recognize the originators of their collection of words. However, this specific study can be said to have passed plagiarism test. First, the body section of the study has various in-text citations, indicating that the authors acknowledged the sources or originators of the ideas that were sued in the study (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  In addition, all the in-text citations have their corresponding bibliographic citations. As such, the authors do not have a case of plagiarism or copyright violation. 

Fabrication and falsification are some of the cardinal malpractices ion research conduct. They are commonly regarded as the key concerns in averting research misconduct. Any deviation or departure from such standards often undermines the integrity of a specific body of research for an individual or organization as a whole (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Falsification can be described as the practice of altering or omitting research findings to support certain claims, hypotheses, as well as other data. This can include the act of manipulating study instrumentation, materials, or procedures. Usually, manipulations of images or representations in a way that distorts the figures or data or reads too much between the lines can also be regarded as an act of falsification (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017). The process of identifying a case of falsification or fabrication is often a complex one. As such, it was not possible for this specific study to detect any case of falsification. This is because the main data that were being explored were primarily qualitative and they were derived from the interview responses. In the same way, it was not easy to detect any case of outright fabrication. Fabrication is the development of or inclusion of data, observations, or characterizations that never took place during the collection of data. Fabrications are likely to take place during the process of filling out the entire of an experiment runs (Ben-Yehuda & Oliver-Lumerman, 2017).  Moreover, the researchers might come up with claims on the basis of incomplete or presumed findings, which are regarded as outright forms of fabrication. 

Institutional Review Board

Details on the Institutional Review Board (IRB) pertaining to this study have not been written in the article. However, the researchers indicate that they passed through the due process of informed consent and other ethical standards before they were approved to participate in the study. In addition, the study was approved by the Ministry of Higher Education, although such a ministry may or may not develop an IRB to assess the ethical suitability of the researchers. Therefore, it is not easy to determine whether or not the above study was approved by IRB. However, the researchers’ use of human subjects was not experimental in nature. Rather, use of human subjects in this study was minimized to data collection process through interviews. 

The absence of details regarding the IRB in this study calls for the need for future researchers to report as to whether or not their studies were approved by an ethics body. All individual organizations or sponsors may demand that all studies, irrespective of their sources of funding, be assessed and approved by an IRB (Whitney, 2015). An IRB has the specific power and authority over the nature of the research within its jurisdiction. For instance, no clinical research may be approved to stat enrolling participants until it has been given the green light by the IRB. The IRB primarily has the authority to approve, dismiss, or halt all research activities that fall within its jurisdictions in accordance with the relevant government regulations and institutional standards and procedures. The IRB also ensures that a given research meets the needed ethical standards by demanding for modifications in processes, protocols as well as previously approved studies (Whitney, 2015). Furthermore, the IRB has the power and authority to demand that participants in a specific research be granted any extra information that will enable them to make informed decisions to participate in the study. 

One of the most important documentations that the IRB may require is the informed consent form. While researchers who indicate that they provided participants with informed consent might have gone through the IRB, it might not be the case in all situations. All institutions that take part in the research process that engage human subjects are often tasked with the responsibility of identifying an IRB to assess and approve such studies (Whitney, 2015). The IRB is charged with the responsibility of adhering to the requirements and standards recommended by the Office for Human Research Protections. Many study sites may be under the jurisdiction of more than one IRB. Then IRB plays a significant role in safeguarding the rights, safety, and wellbeing of all human study participants. The IRB meets this responsibility by assessing the full research plan for a specific research study in order to ensure that it meets the standards that have been recommended by local and international codes of research ethics (Whitney, 2015). Moreover, the IRB undertakes a confirmation and approval that the study plan does not expose human subjects to unreasonable risks. In this particular study, human subjects are not exposed to unreasonable risks because their role in the research is to simply explain how they psychologically cope with the news of their diagnosis with HIV/ AIDS. 

Informed Consent

Informed consent is the main ethical practice that has been extensively observed by the researchers in this study. For instance, after selecting the populations to participate in the study, the participants were informed regarding the conduct of the research. Thereafter, the researchers report that the participants consented to the proposals to participate in the interview. The researchers also indicate that the study participants were given the opportunity to opt out of the research at any stage if they so wished. Therefore, it can be deduced that the study adhered to the recommended informed consent procedures and standards. 

Informed consent can be described as the voluntary acceptance by a study subject to participate in a research (Minor, 2015). Thus, informed consent should not be treated simplistically as a form that is signed but a process. As a process, informed consent is regarded as an essentiality before registering a participa

 
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week 5 NR 532

Respond 

 A difficult situation can result when personal and working relationships are combined. You have been assigned to a new area as the nurse leader, where a good friend of the family has worked for many years. You are made aware of multiple issues of tardiness by your friend over the last few months. Discuss how you would handle the situation. 

 
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csc-technology

 

 

Prompt 1

Galen’s Online Library Resources

Galen’s Online Library has a host of peer reviewed sources and other credible sources for academic research. Search the Online library for an article that discusses one of the following:Smartphone use in the healthcare field Electronic Medical Records (anything related to this topic is fine…cost, implementation, system capabilities, etc) Privacy and Security concerns related to electronic records Database use in the healthcare environment Telemedicine The HITECH Act

* Please do not conduct a ‘Basic’ search and automatically choose the first article in the results list! This will become a boring conversation pretty quickly if everyone does that! Skim the results of your search terms, play with different search terms and limiters and skim the results you are getting. Then, choose an article that stands out to you.

In your post you should:

1. Share the article that you found,

2. Share the method you used to conduct your search,

3. Mention the database(s) that you used to conduct your search,

4. Tell us the key word(s) used in your search,

5. And share: What level of difficulty did you encounter in your search process? 

 

150 WORDS, APA FORMAT

 
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Analysis worksheet

Choose either The Soul of Memphis or The Resistance and analyze using the analysis worksheet

 
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Mid-Term Application Reflection 3-4 pages ALL IN APA STYLE AND ORIGINAL WORK QUALITY WORK

READ ATTACHMENT AND SUMMARIZE FOLLOWING THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW! ORIGINAL WORK AND QUALITY WORK! 

 

eflect on the first 3-4 weeks of class activity and post your opinions on the topics, perhaps a key point that you have learned from your and your classmates’ research on a discussion topic, and show specific application on how you can apply this material and lessons thus far in the course to your workplace and/or career interests. The Mid-Term Course Application Reflection should be substantial in length (3-5 paragraphs comprising 300-500 words) and meet professional standards in content, punctuation, writing style and APA guidelines for in-text cites and references. You want to have at least one credible outside source in your work (text book does not count). Your submission needs to be respectful and supportive in tone.

 
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I need help 4

Health care delivery and the organizations that provide it, manage it, and reimburse for it are growing at an explosive rate. As part of this trend, the growth in the allied health job sector is expected to grow significantly, with job growth projections in the 40% plus range for the period 2012-2022 (according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012).

Expansive growth is a response to current and predicted need for services, and while encouraging, sustained, and rapid growth will inevitably impact safety, risk management, and quality provision on scales not yet seen by health care organizations.

In an essay of 1,250-1,500 words, provide your assessment, with recommendations, of how the United States, as a country, can best manage quality assurance in the health care workplace going into the future. Questions to consider include: How best can the United States, as a country, manage this growth in the allied health sector? Provide examples. What steps might the United States take, from the global down to organizational level, to maintain high standards to provide outstanding care-based services? What steps might the United States take, from the global down to organizational level, to provide exceptional employment opportunities in in-demand allied health fields?

In addition to your readings and resources from the the AHRQ National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (http://www.qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov), and the National Quality Forum (http://www.qualityforum.org) can provide you with excellent data to develop and support your analysis.

You are required to use and cite a minimum of four qualified resources from the readings,  or cited sources in order to complete this assignment succe

 
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