E marketing report

E marketing report
The Structure of a Report
Reports have a standardised format. The structure will be based on the following model:
Not all reports include all of the elements listed. You should always check what is needed with the person who set the work.
• Title Page
• Table of Contents
• Executive summary (not required for this report)
• Introduction
• Main Body
• Conclusion
• Recommendations
• References/Bibliography
• Appendices
1. Title Page
This shows the title or subject of the report, who the report is for, the name of the writer and date of submission.
2. Table of Contents
This details all sections and sub-sections of the report with page numbers.
3. Executive Summary
This summarises the main points and findings. (This is not always needed, particularly if it is a short report).
4. Introduction
This includes the scope and background to the work including:
• The aims and objectives and the terms of reference. The context of the report and its purpose. Sometimes included are details of the organisation requesting the report and the question(s) they are hoping will be answered.
• The methodology – how you have gathered the information presented in the report, for example: by interviews or postal questionnaires. Sometimes it includes an explanation of why a particular investigative approach / methodology was chosen.
• The topics covered – a broad outline of content and scope and any limitations of the project.
5. Main Body of the Report
This is where information is presented, explanations provided and questions answered. It deals with what, how, where and why?
The findings of the report are broken down into discrete sections and sub-sections. Each section and sub-section should have a title/heading, and be numbered.
Include in the body of the report:
• A literature review (in an academic report)
• Method – what you did and why you did it.
• What you found – quantitative data – what was observed, outcome of questionnaires and results of experiments; qualitative information; case studies.
• Discussion – what you have deduced from the findings and how these relate to previous research or other studies. You should discuss findings in a theoretical framework and give opinions based on reasoning and critical thinking. All sources should be referenced.
6. Conclusion
Conclusions should clearly relate to the objective(s) of the report. This is the place to draw together key points made in the report; nothing new should appear here.
7. Recommendations
These should be one or more practical proposals and may offer solutions to problems investigated in the report. You will not always be asked to include recommendations.
Each recommendation should be listed and discussed separately.
8. References (Bibliography)
This should reference all books, articles, journals, websites, and any other sources you consulted when writing the report. This should be listed in alphabetical order.
9. Appendices
These should be at the end of the report. They contain relevant information which is too lengthy or detailed to include in the report itself. Each appendix should contain different information. They should be referred to in the report and not left to stand alone.
Sample reference list
This is an example of a reference list using the Harvard System. Some of the details may vary in different interpretations of Harvard.
Remember: In the Numeric System the date is placed
• (for books) right at the end of a reference
• (for journals) after the journal title.
Abbott, P. (2000) An analysis of efficiency, undergraduate frameworks, awards and progression regulations – modern universities in the UK. Glasgow, Glasgow Caledonian University.
Baren-Cohen, S. (2003) The essential difference: men, women and the extreme male brain. London; Allen Lane.
Barnes, S. (2001) Questionnaire design and construction. Bristol Institute of Learning and Technology. [online] https://www.cros.ac.uk/question_design.pdf#search=%22belief%20questions%20%20Barnes%202001%22 Accessed on 30 August 2006.
Cottrell, S. (2001) Teaching study skills and supporting learning, London; Palgrave.
Donovan, P. (2003) Insights into maternal health. In: Grandis, S., Long, G., Glasper E.A., Donovan, P. Foundation studies for nursing using enquiry based learning. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.15-47.
Figg, K., McAllister, C., & Shapiro, A. (2006) Effective Learning service – a developmental model in practice. Journal of Access Policy and Practice. Vol. 4, number 1, Winter 2006 pp.39-52.
Foster, J. Houston M. Knox, H. & Rimmer, R. (2002) Surviving first year access retention and value added. Lifelong Learning Research Group – Occasional Papers 1. University of Paisley, Paisley.
Hart, C. (2001) Doing a literature search. London: Sage.
Holzworth, R., & Wills, C. (1999) Nurses’ judgements regarding seclusion and restraint of psychiatric patients: a social judgement analysis. Research in Nursing and Health. Vol.22, pp. 189–201. In: Lowe, T., Wellman, N., Taylor, R. (2003) Limit-setting and decision-making in the management of aggression. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.41(2), pp 154-61.
McAllister, C. Shapiro, A. (2004) Developing learners at Glasgow Caledonian University: the Effective Learning Service response. Paper presented at Forum for the advancement of Continuing Education Conference, 2- 4 July 2004.
Scottish Executive. (2003) Supporting people, supporting independent living. Edinburgh HMSO, 2003.
Walsh, N., Roe, B., Huntington, J. (2003) Delivering a different kind of Primary Care? Nurses working in personal medical service pilots Journal of Clinical Nursing [online], Vol.12 (3). Available from: https://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00744.x/full/ [Accessed 1st May 2003].
Coursework Format Individual Report (50% module weighting)
Word Count 2,000 words (+/- 10%) Max 2,500
How Via turnitin located within the assessment icon on GCU Learn. Note: you will be allowed multiple submissions until due date to check for originality and make improvements.
Brief Taking on the role of E-Marketing Director, you have to develop a virtual brand marketing communication campaign using social media marketing to launch the e-service brand in the UK.
Brand Name Developed in part one of the module
(include within appendix) You should identify the brand you developed in part A of the module; provide a short summary of the brand which ought to include:
What the key proposition/ features of the brand
Who is the target audience
Key features of the brand that differentiate itself from competitors
(no marks are awarded for this information as this has been previously assessed. The purpose of this information is to use it as a context for the virtual brand communication campaign)
Section A
10%
25%
Max @1000 words Your report should consist of:
(i) Introduce e-Marketing
Key characteristics of internet marketing and the challenges/opportunities it presents to the e-marketing director.
(ii)Environmental Analysis of competitive brand :This ought to focus on the sector in which the brand is to compete. This section ought to include relevant commentary on:
Technology: evaluate how the internet is utilised within this sector by consumers and organisations
Socio/cultural: How consumers are using the internet; the impact of the internet upon consumer behaviour (e-consumer behaviour); use of technology with a focus on e-marketing communication channels
(iii) Key competitors within the sector and nature of competition
Note: market data should be within appendices; graphs, charts within appendices start with Mintel reports as discussed within seminars
Theoretical support is essential e.g. Constantinides and Foutain (2008) Dennis et al. (2009). Porter (1980)
Section B
Max @600 words
25% This section should focus on a selected competitor brand only.
A critique of a selected competitor brand which should include:
• Examine the current strategy they are trying to achieve? (Ansoff, 1965) their brand positioning; target market; ;
• E-marketing mix analysis
• E-communication communication mix (focus on social media)
Theoretical support is essential e.g. Goldsmith (1999) Ansoff (1965); also refer to seminar papers
Section C
Max ‘1000 words
30% Make recommendations in developing a virtual brand communication strategy focusing on social media marketing tools in the UK.; The recommendation(s) should be based on your analysis of the Environmental Analysis (section A), the critique of the competitor brand (Section B). This should include:
(i) the e-marketing communication strategy recommended: you should apply the DRIP model to develop your e-marketing communications strategy (remember the following issues:
This is a new service brand so should you be increasing the level of awareness and developing Interest in your new brand; be clear as to the target audience of your marketing communication message e.g. consumers)
(ii) Characteristics of digital media and social media marketing
(iii) Social media campaign aimed at the target market identified within section A(ii) e.g. you may wish to develop a facebook page, Pin interest, Instagram, you tube video or a blog page . Examples of these should be placed within your appendices
(iv) Clear justification as to how this campaign will communicate the brand value to your target audience
Theoretical support is essential e.g. Fill (2005); Kaplan and Haelein (2009) Mafe et al. (2014) Tsimonis and Dimitriadis (2014) Davis et al. (2014); ensure you refer to seminar papers
Report Writing Format 10%
(please see p. 23 for guidance) Overall structure of report, introduction; main body in clear headings, clear conclusions; use of appendices; referencing and reference list; clarity of language. Please use the Harvard system of referencing. See appendices for further information on report writing, referencing and plagiarism.

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consumer behavior of international students in low cost hotel in UK

An investigation into the consumer behavior of international students in low cost hotel in UK
An investigation into the consumer behavior of international students in low cost hotel in UKExecutive summary
ThisTable of Contents
Executive summary 2
Table of Contents 1
Introduction 1
Research contexts/backgrounds 1
Research question 1
Rationales of the research 1
Research hypotheses and objectives 1
Dissertation structure 1
Literature review 1
Overview 2
Theoretical framework with key concepts 2
Research gap 2
Methodology 2
Overview 2
This chapter introduces how the research would be done, including research design, strategy for primary data collection, data analysis and research ethical considerations. The limitations of this dissertation research are also identified in the end. 2
Methodology illustrates the basic uses of questionnaires and personal interview. The methodology process will take into consideration of the SERVQUAL model while also consider the specific characteristics of the tourism industry under the contemporary business environment. A questionnaire will be devised and attached also in the end of the dissertation as an appendix. 2
Primary data is critical for getting to know the specific results of a certain claim discovered in secondary resource research. The understanding of the related theories and concepts also calls for the collection and use of primary data. What’s more, the conclusions and findings that we already have are also to be backed by the utility of primary statistics and measure the distance between the theory and the application of it. This is why, in this dissertation, primary resource collection has been one of the tasks that take up considerable amount of the time and resources of the research process. 2
Questionnaire can be a good way to collect first hand data for the analysis of research result. Therefore a questionnaire is designed to be handed out for people to fill in order to get enough primary data. There are several things to be considered in designing a questionnaire. First, questionnaires should be clear and right to the heart of the problem that is supposed to be addressed by it. Second, the designing of the questionnaire should be clear and logical in structuring the various questions that have to be answered. In addition, questionnaires must make sure that data will be enough to come to an informed analysis of the given topic. The deploying of the questionnaires should also be carefully designed. First, they are supposed to be deployed at places that are highly representative and related to the issue. Second, it should be made sure that these questionnaires are distributed to people in a random manner. This means that the targets of the questionnaire should be different kinds of individuals who have different characteristics in life. 3
The practitioners of the low cost hotel in UK should be investigated. Data has to be collected about their behaviour within the low cost hotel. The analysis of the primary data collected from the practitioners of low cost hotel should be from three aspects. First, what kind of service within the model they have provided. In addition, we need to consider what kind of service within the low cost hotel that they think is significant and required to better improve the service that they have already provided. In the end, a comparison should be made as to how they are satisfied with the degree to which they met those standards should also be considered within the data analysis. 3
Similar primary data has to be collected from the international students. This is the focal point of the research. 3
Research design 4
Strategy for primary data collection 4
Data will be collected via questionnaire survey. Questionnaire survey is fitting for approaching a large number of research participants in an effective and efficient manner(Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009). 4
Each question of the above questionnaire should be answered with a yes or no. some of them, however, are supposed to be answered with a short and concise further explanation. Foreign students of the universities of the UK are chosen as targets questionnaires. Questionnaires should be evenly distributed to both parties with the objectiveness of the result being considered. 4
300 questionnaires are deployed altogether. These questionnaires are distributed in online chatting room that is currently popular in the UK among university students. Email is also adopted as another method to access to targets. In general, students are all friendly and glad to help. The questionnaire survey is relatively easy because access to them is far more convenient and can be achieved within the campus. 4
As with personal interviews, people are randomly selected to be interviewed concerning their views on the matter. In particular, 10 interviewees will be selected to answer questions. Most of these questions are mentioned in the questionnaire above. However, the result and data of interview are supposed to be much more accurate and believable since people would ponder before offering their answers for the questions asked. For a questionnaire, the information collected in this process maybe untrue since people would potentially consider that it is a waste of their time and just cope with it instead of thinking for a while for the right answer. 4
10 students are interviewed with the questions given above. Answers to all questions are recorded and is later transferred into writing form. 4
Data analysis 5
Ethical considerations 5
Limitations of the research 5
Findings 5
Overview 5
Customer behavior of international students in tourism 5
Service quality perceived by international students 5
Discussions 5
Overview 5
Customer behavior of international students in tourism 5
Factors influencing tourism service quality 5
Conclusions and Recommendations 5
Reference 7
Introduction
International students are a major source of tourists for education destination countries.
Research contexts/backgrounds
Research question
The research question is formulated as:
What are the customer behavior characteristics of international students in tourism? —- Focus on economic hotel
Rationales of the research
The two rationales for doing this research are to understand customer behavior characteristics of international students in tourism, and to enhance the service quality of tourism in the UK for internationals students.
Does service quality matter in low cost hotel?
Research hypotheses and objectives
Does service quality matter in low cost hotel?
Dissertation structure
This section introduces the basic structure of the dissertation.
Literature review
The literature review forms a theoretical framework for doing this dissertation research.
Overview
The literature review focuses on key concepts such as tourism service quality, with introducing the SERVQUAL service quality model.
Theoretical framework with key concepts
SERVQUAL model has been widely applied in measuring service quality in hospitality and tourism industries(Babakus and Boller, 1992). SERVQUAL model is developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988).
Research gap
Research
Methodology
Overview
This chapter introduces how the research would be done, including research design, strategy for primary data collection, data analysis and research ethical considerations. The limitations of this dissertation research are also identified in the end.
Methodology illustrates the basic uses of questionnaires and personal interview. The methodology process will take into consideration of the SERVQUAL model while also consider the specific characteristics of the tourism industry under the contemporary business environment. A questionnaire will be devised and attached also in the end of the dissertation as an appendix.
Primary data is critical for getting to know the specific results of a certain claim discovered in secondary resource research. The understanding of the related theories and concepts also calls for the collection and use of primary data. What’s more, the conclusions and findings that we already have are also to be backed by the utility of primary statistics and measure the distance between the theory and the application of it. This is why, in this dissertation, primary resource collection has been one of the tasks that take up considerable amount of the time and resources of the research process.?
Questionnaire can be a good way to collect first hand data for the analysis of research result. Therefore a questionnaire is designed to be handed out for people to fill in order to get enough primary data. There are several things to be considered in designing a questionnaire. First, questionnaires should be clear and right to the heart of the problem that is supposed to be addressed by it. Second, the designing of the questionnaire should be clear and logical in structuring the various questions that have to be answered. In addition, questionnaires must make sure that data will be enough to come to an informed analysis of the given topic. The deploying of the questionnaires should also be carefully designed. First, they are supposed to be deployed at places that are highly representative and related to the issue. Second, it should be made sure that these questionnaires are distributed to people in a random manner. This means that the targets of the questionnaire should be different kinds of individuals who have different characteristics in life.?
The practitioners of the low cost hotel in UK should be investigated. Data has to be collected about their behaviour within the low cost hotel. The analysis of the primary data collected from the practitioners of low cost hotel should be from three aspects. First, what kind of service within the model they have provided. In addition, we need to consider what kind of service within the low cost hotel that they think is significant and required to better improve the service that they have already provided. In the end, a comparison should be made as to how they are satisfied with the degree to which they met those standards should also be considered within the data analysis.
Similar primary data has to be collected from the international students. This is the focal point of the research. ?
Research design
Strategy for primary data collection
Data will be collected via questionnaire survey. Questionnaire survey is fitting for approaching a large number of research participants in an effective and efficient manner(Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2009).
Each question of the above questionnaire should be answered with a yes or no. some of them, however, are supposed to be answered with a short and concise further explanation. Foreign students of the universities of the UK are chosen as targets questionnaires. Questionnaires should be evenly distributed to both parties with the objectiveness of the result being considered.
300 questionnaires are deployed altogether. These questionnaires are distributed in online chatting room that is currently popular in the UK among university students. Email is also adopted as another method to access to targets. In general, students are all friendly and glad to help. The questionnaire survey is relatively easy because access to them is far more convenient and can be achieved within the campus.
As with personal interviews, people are randomly selected to be interviewed concerning their views on the matter. In particular, 10 interviewees will be selected to answer questions. Most of these questions are mentioned in the questionnaire above. However, the result and data of interview are supposed to be much more accurate and believable since people would ponder before offering their answers for the questions asked. For a questionnaire, the information collected in this process maybe untrue since people would potentially consider that it is a waste of their time and just cope with it instead of thinking for a while for the right answer.
10 students are interviewed with the questions given above. Answers to all questions are recorded and is later transferred into writing form.
Data analysis
Data will be analyzed in a quantitative manner.
Ethical considerations
The dissertation should be carried out in an ethical manner.
Limitations of the research
Findings
Overview
Customer behavior of international students in tourism
Service quality perceived by international students
Discussions
Overview
Customer behavior of international students in tourism
Factors influencing tourism service quality
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Communication Theories

Communication Theories
Choose one of the two case studies below to prepare an essay response.  You must decide which area of communication theory studied this semester primarily addresses the case study question.  Review the relevant week’s readings provided on the QCD211 Blackboard site AND other academic sources in order to prepare your reference page. Ensure you follow all guidelines provide to prepare both your essay and your reference page.
Case One
Suki is an international student enrolled in the first semester of an undergraduate degree at an Australian university. This is the first time she has been away from her family and friends. She has found the transition to life in Australia extremely difficult. However, recently Suki started a part-time job at a small boutique through which she has started to make friends and socialise more. Suki’s parents do not want her to work while she is studying and have told her if her grades suffer, they will withdraw the financial support they currently provide. As a result, Suki decides not to tell her parents that she is working. She tells herself that this is not lying as long as they never ask her if she has a job. In her home country, Suki was a high achieving student and had never experienced any issues in relation to her academic progress. She believes she will be able to maintain the same standards while studying in Australia.
Everything seems to be going well for Suki. However, as her mid-semester exams approach she realises that she is behind in most of her units. In addition to her exams, she has several assignments due and she starts missing classes in order to try to catch up. She tells her friend Benji that she does not know what to do and that she is sure that she will fail her assessment. Benji tells her not to worry as his cousin is in the second year of the same degree that Suki is enrolled in. Benji reassures Suki that he will be able to get a copy of all past assessment items from his cousin. Suki is concerned and asks Benji what she will do with his cousin’s assessment. Benji advises Suki not to worry and that all students copy from each other. Suki recalls all her lecturers warning students about plagiarism and the consequences if caught. However, she feels she has no alternative and uses Benji’s cousin’s assignments. She believes that no one will ever know as she makes some changes and her Turnitin reports do not show a high percentage of copying. However, later in semester Suki receives an email from one of her lecturers asking her to attend an appointment to discuss her assessment.
Case Two
Jasmine works for a small research company. She has been with the company since it started ten years ago. Although the company is not very large, it has been successful in securing a number of large educational research projects. Jasmine has just started to work on a research project which aims to investigate the most successful learning strategies for international students. This is an important piece of research as the number of students studying outside their home countries is continually increasing. It is also important as there are many misconceptions about international students. As a result, Jasmine’s manager instructs her to use a large and diverse sample of participants to ensure greater reliability and validity of the research findings. Jasmine is quite concerned as it is extremely challenging to find willing research participants. Before she can start approaching participants, she must gain the official support of the educational institutions they attend. As a result, Jasmine’s manager invites the Vice-Chancellors of several leading universities to a meeting in which Jasmine must persuade them of the value of her research.
Jasmine prepares extensive documents about her research. She starts the meeting by offering the Vice-Chancellors drinks and snacks. She thinks this approach will make her more likeable. However, she feels rather uncomfortable when the Vice-Chancellors tell her that they do not have a lot of time to waste and ask her to provide details of her research. At this point, she becomes lost for words and distributes the documents she prepared prior to the meeting. She tells the Vice-Chancellors to have a quick read and she will answer their questions. The Vice- Chancellors look at each other confused. One of them then asks if Jasmine could explain why they should allow their students to participate in this research. Another asks how the universities will benefit from this research. Jasmine did not anticipate these questions and responds rather vaguely stating that the research is really important and will help universities understand international students. Not long after the meeting Jasmine receives an email telling her that the Vice-Chancellors are not supportive of Jasmine’s research.
For the exam, you must write a correctly structured case study essay of approximately 1200 words in which you apply your analytical problem-solving skills to a chosen situation. Your analytical response must be based on relevant communication theory as covered in this unit. You are required to incorporate theory into your essay as both direct quotes or paraphrases from a reference page (see details below) prepared in advance. Each quotation and/or paraphrase that you include in your essay must be relevant and well-incorporated.
Your essay will be assessed on your ability to:
?    Recognise and apply relevant communication theory as presented in the unit
?    Analyse, synthesise and evaluate information
?    Structure a case study essay
?    Use academic language and tone
?    Select and incorporate references in-text
?    Use appropriate referencing conventions
Reference Page Requirements
•    On one side of a single sheet of A4 paper, list 10 one-sentence direct quotations NOT paraphrases which support your case study response.
?    6 of these direct quotations must come from resources provided on the QCD211 site
?    4 of these direct quotations must come from external academic sources (your research contribution)
•    On the other side of the A4 page, provide the corresponding APA reference list for all sources.
?    It is recommended that you have at least 6 different sources
•    It is your responsibility to have your reference page signed by your tutor in tutorial time or consultation time only. No pages will be signed outside these times.
•    Refer to the model on BB for details about other requirements of this page

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Theories of the Labour Market and links with the State

bstract 3 Introduction 3 Literature review 3 2.1 The Labour Market: 5 2.1.1 Theories of the Labour Market and links with the State 6 2.1.2 Labour Market Types 8 2.1.2.1 External Labour Markets 8 2.1.2.2 Internal Labour Markets 8 2.1.3 Changing Labour markets 9 2.1.3.1 Effects of Globalisation 11 2.1.3.2 Demographic Changes in the Labour Market 11 2.1.3.2.1. Demographic Characteristics of the Saudi market 11 2.1.3.3 Neo-liberal factors – labour market flexibility 12 2.1.4 Labour Markets in the Middle East 13 2.1.4.1 Labour market in Saudi Arabia 14 2.1.4.2 Labour Market Regulations and Measurement 15 2.2 HRM and Labour Flexibility 15 2.2.1 Defining HRM: Context and Definitional Problems 16 2.2.2 Notion of flexibility as HRM goal 17 2.2.3 Theories of labour flexibility – notion of ‘flexible firm’ 17 2.2.4 Forms and contexts for flexible employment 19 2.2.5. Flexibility in the context of HRM theory 19 2.2.6. Advantages & Disadvantages of Flexible employment 20 2.2.7 Internal HRM strategies and practices of firms 22 2.2.8 Divergence and Convergence of Labour Systems 22 2.2.9 Conflict Between Multinational Corporations and Saudi Culture 23 2.2.10. Labour Market Flexibility in Global Perspective 24 2.2.10.1. Europe 25 2.2.10.2 The Americas 26 2.2.10.3 Africa 26 2.2.10.4 Asia and Australia 27 2.2.10.5. Labour market in Saudi Arabia 27 2.2.11. Limitations of the Saudi Arabian Analysis 28 3. Methodology 29 3.1 Introduction 29 3.2 Methodological Approach 29 3.3 Research Strategy 29 3.4 Sampling Strategy 30 3.5 Data Collection 31 3.5.1 Semi-Structured Interviews 31 3.5.2 Questionnaires 32 3.5.3 Secondary Data 33 3.6 Data Analysis 33 3.7 Ethical Considerations 34 References 36 Table of Figures 49
 
 
Table of Figures Figure 1: Employment profile of Saudi Arabia 50 Figure 2: Male and Female Global Labour Force Participation 50 Figure 3: Rates of Employment in the Arab world 51 Figure 4: Shift and Temporary working in developing countries 52 Figure 5: Sectoral changes in employment 53 Figure 6: Changes in employee representation method 54 Figure 7: Temporary Agency Employment – Europe and US 55 Figure 8: Gender gap in employment in Arab nations 55 Figure 9: Youth Unemployment by gender in Arab nations 56 Figure 10: Youth Unemployment by gender in Arab nations 56 Figure 11 Saudi male and female unemployment levels to 2008 57   Abstract This paper critically analyses literature on the context and frameworks of the global labour but  with a specific reference to Saudi Arabia and potential solutions to employment concerns that exist within the country. The chapter discusses the emerging theoretical framework demonstrating what is known and exposes significant gaps. The definitions, theories, types and the changes in the labour market are also identified. The Middle East and Saudi Arabia labour markets and its regulations and measurements are then discussed. Previous studies on HRM and labour flexibility are also reviewed. Finally, a methodology outlining the proposed methods and ethical considerations for this research is presented. Introduction This paper aims to deliver a full background to the constructs of the labour market, both internal and external, in a global sense and more specifically within the Saudi Arabian labour market framework. This chapter therefore reinforces the aims of the work to examine the potential for flexible polices and forms of employment for female graduates within the Saudi Arabian context. It is therefore expected that, if the findings of this research were implemented, the gender unemployment gaps would be filled in the next two years………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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Analysis of Yi T’aejun, Janet Poole

Analysis of Yi T’aejun, Janet Poole, trans. Eastern Sentiments (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009)
Value: 15% of the final grade. Due date: On April 10, 2014, during the study period. Late Penalty: 5% penalty on the first day, 2% penalty on each subsequent day late, including weekends. The essay will not be accepted one week after the due date. Submission method: Assignment link on OWL. A hard-copy is not required. Length: Approximately 9 to 11 pages, not including footnotes and bibliography. It should be Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced, ordinary margin.
Please do NOT make large spaces between paragraphs to make your paper seem longer.
The following assignment is designed to develop your skills in analyzing a key primary source. In format it should be structured as an ordinary essay. The goal is to engage in a close reading of an important text from modern East Asia, Eastern Sentiments by Yi T’aejun. Yi T’aejun’s Eastern Sentiments recorded his thoughts about Korean culture, East Asian culture, modernity, tradition, and literature during the 1930s, which also saw the rise of Japanese fascism. Yi T’aejun, as a Korean, was a colonized person controlled by Japan, but was also a wealthy person, who in many ways benefited from the economic inequality of the era.
.
Guide to the Assignment:
The purpose of the assignment is to engage in a detailed assessment of one aspect of Eastern Sentiments. Do not try to be comprehensive, although you should also have read the entire book.
You are encouraged to ask some of the following questions: What sort of information does Yi T’aejun present us? How does he understand his role in society? How does he understand the world, and the changes that he is experiencing? Given the likely censorship of the era, are there any coded criticisms of Japanese rule? Or is he really in many ways supporting Japanese rule?
With those questions in mind, I suggest the following topics:
Yi T’aejun is a modern author, but he comments positively on Korean tradition during a period of rapid change and urbanization under Japanese rule. Perhaps he is even looking at tradition from a somewhat essentialist point of view. Critically assess his understanding of tradition and modernity.
Yi T’aejun is writing, as a colonized person, during a period of the rise of Japanese imperialism and fascism. How does he locate Korea in East Asia? How does he relate Korean culture with a broader East Asian culture?
Translation: Please do not concern yourself with the fact that the texts have all been translated into English. Your job is not to evaluate the translations (which you will not be able to do, in any case, as you don’t read the source languages), but to evaluate the texts as historical sources.
Citation: Structure your footnotes according to Adam Bohnet’s house-style, including in my guide to essay writing (attached).
Hints:
It is very important to engage in a close reading of this text. Don’t talk in vague terms, but quote specific passages and analyze them in depth.
However, having finished the analysis, be sure to organize your discussion into paper with a clear thesis.
Research:
You should refer to at least four secondary sources (not including the textbook, which should, however be cited also). However, make sure that these sources are scholarly sources, and do not be too lazy. One brief reference to a source on a minor point will not count with me this time.
Remember, with Chinese language or Korean language sources, it is possible to obtain the articles in question via interlibrary loan.
Close Reading and Quotations:
The purpose of this assignment is, above all, to make a close reading of the text. To do this, students are encouraged to make effective use of well-selected quotations or detailed reference to the text. This is not to say that students should quote for the sake of quoting. However, as students are supposed to engage in close readings, students are strongly encouraged to fine key passages, and engage in a detailed reading of those passages. To this end, one might quote a portion of the text (either as a large block-quote or largely paraphrased with quotation of smaller phrases) and follow this quotation with a detailed discussion of the quotation. Burrow into the text like a parasite into its host, and extract sustenance from it.
Remember that this detailed discussion of the quotation should be one building block in your argument. Before you finish your paper, go through the paper carefully. First go through each paragraph, and ask if each part of the paragraph supports the over-all statement being made by the paragraph. Then go through each paragraph and ask if each paragraph supports the over-all argument of the essay as a whole. Then look at the introductory paragraph and especially the thesis statement and see if there is any way to tighten the introductory paragraph to make it clearer, sharper, and more interesting. Then go through the whole process again!
Remember also that writing is a long process, for which there is no end. The same is true of slow reading.
Finally, be sure to inform yourself thoroughly on the subject of plagiarism which is discussed below.
POLICY REGARDING PLAGIARISM
Preamble: Any written text (and supporting materials), whether printed (e.g. a book, an article, a pamphlet) or “manuscript” (e.g. ms. for a scholarly paper or a dissertation), is the property of its author[s]. Therefore, any use of any part of such materials must be acknowledged. When the use is “indirect”, as in a summary of information and/or ideas, the “borrowing” is acknowledged with a footnote. When the “borrowing” is “direct”, that is when a portion of the text or of the supporting material is quoted verbatim, the “borrowing” is acknowledged in two ways: (1) quotation marks around the material quoted, and (2) a footnote. It is worth repeating that both forms of acknowledgement are mandatory when the material is copied directly. Use of on-line sources, if permitted by your instructor, must be acknowledged as to specific source, date of access, etc.
Definition: Plagiarism, simply defined, is a form of theft. Were the plagiarised material to be subsequently published it could well lead to legal action against the culprit. Plagiarism generally takes one of two forms (with infinite variations). “Flagrant plagiarism” occurs when portions of one or more written texts are copied, but no quotation marks are used to indicate the borrowing … although a footnote may appear, which, as indicated above, is not sufficient. “Disguised plagiarism” occurs when the original text is paraphrased in such a way as to “disguise” the theft … changing a word here and there, etc., even if a footnote is provided. Example: The original text says “The Cabinet met three times in an effort to resolve the issue”; the “paraphrased” text says “The Cabinet met on three occasions in an effort to resolve the problem”.
Plagiarism checking: The University of Western Ontario uses software for plagiarism checking. Students may be required to submit their written work in electronic form for checking. Plagiarism is a major academic offence. For further information see the section on Scholastic Offences in the Academic Calendar.
Penalties: The Department Chair will determine the appropriate penalty in consultation with the student’s course instructor. Penalties may include the following:
A. Inadvertent plagiarism by a beginning student will result in a warning to the student.
B. “Flagrant plagiarism” results in a “0” for the assignment.
C. “Disguised plagiarism” results in a “0” for the assignment.
D. Submission of an assignment which is also being submitted in another course (or has been submitted in another course in a previous year), results in a “0” for the assignment.
E. Submission of an assignment prepared by someone other than the alleged author results in a “0” FOR THE COURSE.
F. Instances of plagiarism will be reported to the Dean.
King’s University College
at The University of Western Ontario
Statement on Academic Offences:
King’s is committed to Academic Integrity.
Scholastic offences are taken seriously and students are directed to read the appropriate policy, specifically, the definition of hat constitutes a Scholastic Offence, at the following Web site:
http://www.uwo.ca/univsec/handbook/appeals/scholastic_discipline_undergrad.pdf
PLAGIARISM AND CHEATING ARE SERIOUS SCHOLASTIC OFFENCES. All required papers may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to the commercial plagiarism detection software under license to the University for the detection of plagiarism. All papers submitted for such checking will be included as source documents in the reference database for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of papers subsequently submitted to the system. Use of the service is subject to the licensing agreement, currently between The University of Western Ontario and Turnitin.com (http://www.turnitin.com)
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Plagiarism/Academic Dishonesty
Plagiarism – broadly speaking, representing somebody else’s ideas and words as your own – is a problem at all universities. Some people say that this is a growing problem, although this is hard to know for certain, as life for plagiarists, and for those tasked with catching plagiarism, has been transformed by the Internet, which makes it easier to plagiarise, and also easier to catch somebody for plagiarism.
I follow university policy and always report plagiarists to the university. The minimum result for plagiarism is a 0, the maximum result is expulsion from the university with “plagiarist” on your academic record.
That being said, there is some confusion about what plagiarism is. Beyond consulting the academic calendar, please also consult the following guide.
Plagiarism, like skateboarding but unlike copyright violation, is not usually a crime. However, like riding an invisible skateboard during a marathon, it is always cheating. It is unfair to those students who work hard to write a perfect paper if other students simply cut and paste earlier work and represent it as something new.
Following point #1: Note that, therefore, it is also plagiarism to submit the same assignment, or sections of the same assignment, more than once, even if you are the original author of the first assignment. If you want to build on something that you wrote before and under other circumstances, please talk to me first. I will want to see the first assignment, and will also want you to indicate on your paper to me which sections of the paper are actually derived from your earlier assignment.
Beyond fairness, plagiarism violates the very core purpose of the academic essay, which is to establish your own argument by critiquing or building on the ideas of others. If you are not clear which ideas are your own, and which ideas belong to earlier scholars, then not only you have completely failed to write an academic paper, you have also lost an opportunity to develop your own ideas and defend your own point of view.
Citation
To avoid plagiarism it is necessary to know how to cite the work of other scholars. The basic rule is: whenever you refer to the ideas of other scholars, you need to footnote those ideas, and whenever you quote another scholar’s words, you need to use quotation marks.
Nearly all literate cultures have methods for assimilating the work of other authors to support their own, although many lack the requirement for clear and explicit citation of other people’s ideas and ideas that is characteristic of the academic paper developed in the modern university. If you take a job with the government of Canada, for instance, you not only are allowed to copy the wording of earlier reports, you are even encouraged to do so. Classical Chinese poetry is often built up through a series of quotations from other poems which are generally unacknowledged but which the educated reader is supposed to recognize.
In academic writing, however, you need to cite clearly. Remember, it is much safer to over-cite than to under-cite. I won’t take away marks for citing unnecessarily, but I will take off marks for poorly supported arguments or unclear sources.
Do not just stick a quick footnote after each paragraph. Remember, it has to be clear to me what your source is for each piece of information. For instance, you might write something like this (as:
The paradigm of East Asian square-studies has recently been transformed by new intellectual, aesthetic and political currents. It was once said that “squares are inherently boring shapes.” Yet, as Ivanovich rightly points out, squares possess a distinct, if understated, beauty that will often seduce even the most philistine of critics. Historians, moreover, have revealed that “squarephobia,” though dominant in East Asia since the 1950s, has not traditionally been the most influential ‘morpho-ideotic’ tendency. The rampant ‘squarephobia’ of South Koreans during the 20th century is in sharp contrast to the more general squarephilia of their ancestors during the Chos?n dynasty. Recent surveys of contemporary critical opinion suggest that squares, once banished as bourgeois by unimaginative materialist critics, are about to make a strong aesthetic comeback.
At the end of the essay including this paragraph, you might have a bibliography as follows
Bibliography
Bohnet, Adam. “The Squares of Ch’unch’?n: 1980-1990.” In Squares and Society, edited by Heejung Kim, 20-45. Ch’unch’?n: Kangwon UP, 1997.
Ivanovich, Ivan. Einleitung zür Quadrat Kunde. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003.
Kim, Heejung. Philippic against Squares. Ch’unch’?n: Kangwon University Press, 1994.
— ed. Squares and Society. Ch’unch’?n: Kangwon University Press, 1994.
Kim Jinsuk. Memories of Ch’unch’?n. Translated by Adam Bohnet. Ch’unch’?n: Kangwon University Press, 1994.
Kw?n Chaptam. “K?nhy?ndae Han’guk es? ?i sagakhy?ng hy?moj?ng ?i chemunje.” S?ul Sagak. 30 (2007): 112-113
Liang Xiaoyan. Sijuexing yu dongyaxiya de xinshixue. Taibei: shixue chubanshe, 2006
O-Pak Yunh?i. Sagakhy?ng ?l pogo sagak ?l haess?! Seoul: Ilchogak, 2003
________________________________________________________________________
In your footnotes and bibliography, do not translate the titles of works written in languages other than English. An exception might well be made if you are referring to the title in text. For instance:
The story of Kang Shijue???, a seventeenth-century Ming Chinese refugee to Chos?n Korea, is told in The Concise Chronicle of Hamgy?ng Province (Pungno kiryak????). The Concise Chronicle describes him as having taken for his wife a post-station slave with whom he had two sons (????????).1
1. Entry for Musan (??), ??????(??: ??????, 1974), 235.
Internet sources: At one time I simply banned all on-line sources except for those earth-bound journals made available via the library website. This is no longer possible. More and more good quality scholarship is available on-line, including in free, on-line journals.
Students have a terrible tendency to copy information from on-line sources without citing their sources, and to restrict themselves exclusively to such information as can be obtained through a quick google-search. This can result in a very poor paper and a very poor grade. If the student forgets to use quotation marks around copied information, it can also result in the accusation of plagiarism. For Internet sources, the following are useful rules:
A – Never rely on Wikipedia (whether Chinese, Korean, English, Japanese or in any other language), Baidu or Daum! Even if you start by checking a few similar sites, by the time you finish your paper, be sure that you have confirmed all information in stable, scholarly sources.
B – Tourism websites, blogs, newspapers are not good sources for a scholarly study of East Asian history. Old newspaper articles (say an 1890 New York Times) or Youtube clips of old newsreels may be useful (depending on the topic), but only as primary sources to be critiqued, not as authoritative secondary sources. Museums and Art Galleries also often provide excellent on-line galleries which are worth consulting and quoting, provided one provides a proper reference. Should you have any doubts, please send me an e-mail, and I will check the quality of the source in question.
See the information about citing on-line sources below.
Frequently-Asked Questions:
Question: What if there is something that I just know? Do I still need a footnote?
Answer: Very common information, such as “Seoul is the capital of South Korea” or “Yi Kwangsu lived from 1892-1950,” does not need a citation. On the other hand, do be careful about things which you “just know,” as many are, in fact, memes which you picked up from high-school history or historical dramas, and which may, in fact, be false. An essay should not be filled with unsupported claims, even if they are true. Many students have told me in the past that the following sentence is something that they just know:
“Korea is a beautiful country with a homogenous race and ancient cultural traditions which is currently, despite having suffered more invasions than any other country in history, a leader in information technology and trade.”
Consider this sentence:
The first bit, that Korea is a beautiful country, is true, but probably beside the point;
The “homogenous race” is left-over racialism from the early twentieth century, and is false;
“The ancient cultural traditions” may be true, but the statement is also almost certainly beside the point, and probably ignores the fact that individual “ancient” cultural traditions may be of much more recent vintage (P’ansori is mostly a late Chos?n art-form, Taekwondo a twentieth century reworking of martial arts; the Confucian family a late Chos?n development influenced by Japanese colonial patriarchy, etc. – of course, none of this is shameful, as Korea, like all other countries, has underdone dynamic development over the centuries);
The claim that Korea suffered more invasions than any other country in history is completely false;
The “leader in information technology and trade” may be true, but it most certainly does need a citation, and in any case is almost certainly derived from government-sponsored propaganda. Also, it probably has absolutely nothing to do with the course.
In other words, your essay would be vastly improved without this statement.
Before students of non-Korean heritage get TOO pleased, however, please note that I have seen similar sentences relating to Chinese, Canadian and European history.
Question: What if a very famous person (Churchill, Nietzsche, Marx) said something (“God is Dead” or “Religion is the Opiate of the Masses”) which everybody always quotes? Do I still need to cite the source?
Answer: Many instructors say “no.” I say “yes.” My reason is simple. If you do not know the context, then you don’t understand the quotation. If it is important for your paper that religion is the opiate of the masses, then look up Marx to see where he said that, and why. Remember the bad example of Christine Lagarde, former French finance minister and current head of the IMF, who quotes famous sayings from management guides and thinks that she is quoting Confucius.
Question: Can I cite lecture notes?
Answer: No. The point of citation is that it allows the reader to check the information cited by the author. Lecture notes cannot be checked. If I say something interesting, then ask me the source of my information. If another professor says something interesting, then ask him or her the source of the information. Unless there is no alternative and you receive permission from me, do not refer to lecture notes.
Question: May I use “I” “In my opinion,” or “I think” in my essay?
Answer: Of course, students are supposed to express their opinions in their essays. However, within an essay students are supposed not only to state their opinions, but also to prove their opinions through logically-developed arguments based on evidence. The goal is not merely to trumpet one’s own opinions, but to convince the reader. For this reason, many instructors discourage students from using “I” and “In my opinion.”
Because it is often difficult to write good English without occasionally using “I,” in my classes students are encouraged to use “I” when not using “I” results in an awkward sentence. However, students are strongly discouraged from using the phrase “In my opinion.” In my experience, when students use the phrase “in my opinion,” they usually express an opinion that is commonplace and unexceptional to an extreme. Banal sentences like, “In my opinion, killing people is wrong” or “In my opinion, Canada is a multicultural country” do not improve an argument.
Question: How should I deal with foreign terms, names and titles in my paper?
Answer: This is a very difficult problem indeed. It is not always necessary to translate terms, but it makes it very difficult to read a paper if you don’t translate enough terms.
What is the difference between The Tale of Genji, Genji Monogatari and ??????? Well, the first is easiest for English speakers to understand – but is a monogatari exactly the same as a tale? The third is easier to read for people who read Korean and Chinese, but do not know Japanese, but even then there can be some confusion. I have never encountered the word “??”(which would be pronounced as mur? in Korean) in any Literary Sinitic text from the Chos?n period – so I might well mistranslate it if I was thinking in the Chos?n version of Literary Sinitic (Also known as Classical Chinese or ??).
In all my classes I encourage students to use all their linguistic abilities to the fullest extent. So if you can read Korean or Japanese or Chinese, do refer to works written in those languages. Of course, no student is required to know a language other than English. However, when you translate from an Asian language into English, keep the following points in mind:
a) Use proper Romanization. For Korean, use McCune-Reischauer: http://www.lib.ucdavis.edu/dept/hss/e-asian/roman-mccune-korean.php, for Chinese use pinyin (http://www.pinyin.info/) and for Japanese use Hepburn (http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Hepburn_romanization.html).
b) Be careful when translating. Sometime the best technique is to check the textbook or another standard book and see how the term is translated there. If that doesn’t work, then you might try cautiously translating the title or term for yourself. A word for word translation is, of course, almost never a good idea. A translation using a machine translator is almost always a disaster. For instance, in one of my classes, an ambitious student tried to translate The Writings of the Grand Historian (????) as Too History Mr. Book. Each one of those words is potentially a correct translation of the Chinese characters that make up the title – but the translation as a whole is definitely wrong.
c) If that doesn’t work, you might consider leaving a term untranslated, or alternately, have a suggested translation with the original word in brackets. Note that generally one puts foreign words in brackets.
So, for instance:
“The most important concept within Confucianism is ren, which may be translated as ‘benevolence’ or ‘humanity’.”
“Minami, the S?toku ?? (Governor General) of the Japanese colony of Ch?sen ?? (Korea) met with an envoy from the Mussolini’s fascist government in 1938.”
“The priests of the Paris Foreign Mission (Société des Missions Étrangères de Paris) were arrested by the police (p’ojol ??) within the neighbourhood of chandari ??? to the west of Seoul’s Inwang Mountain (???.)
.
House Style for Adam Bohnet’s History Classes
Below is a modified version of the Chicago Manual of Style for Adam Bohnet’s classes. This is the only style to be used in this essay.
Note that you should never translate titles (except perhaps in the text in order to clarify the meaning – see above), and that even if you obtain an article on-line you need to provide complete bibliographic information. Include both bibliographic information and the URL.
Note also that my particular style for citations of Chinese-language scholarship is unorthodox. I balance consistency with the style used for English-language scholarship and respect for standard Chinese practice. In any case, I base myself primarily on South Korean practice. You are unlikely to use exactly this citation style in other classes and certainly won’t use it in China or South Korea.
Also note: I must have page numbers if I am to track down the article in question. Although page-numbers are not always included in Chinese bibliographies, they are required for essays written for this class.
Chicago Manual of Style: Documentation 1: Notes and Bibliographies (Humanities Style). The note reference follows the passage to which it refers and is marked with a numeral. Notes are arranged numerically either at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the manuscript (endnotes). Notes include complete bibliographic information when cited for the first time. The bibliography lists only sources used in writing the paper. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name and include complete bibliographic information.
Journal Article (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 569)
Note (1st): ?Sean Hanretta, “Women, Marginality and the Zulu State: Women’s Institutions and Power in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Journal of African History 39 (1998), 390.
Jian Wen (??) ,???????????????, ???????3? (1995): 23-43.
Following footnotes of the same article: ?
??, 25.
Hanretta, 390.
Bibliography: ?Hanretta, Sean. “Women, Marginality and the Zulu State: Women’s Institutions and Power in the Early Nineteenth Century.” Journal of African History 39 (1998): 389-415.
Jian Wen (??),???????????????,???????3? (1995): 23-43.
If the article is made available online, also include the URL and the date of access in your entry.
So:
Jung Min, “Constructing Sectarian Pilgrimage Sites in Neo-Confucian Schools,” Korean Histories 3 vol. 1 (2012): 23-34. http://www.koreanhistories.org/files/Volume_3_1/KH%203.1%20Yoon.pdf (February 25, 2013).
The date at the end is the date of access. However, in nearly all cases with on-line journals, the journals are stable after publication, so the date is not that important.
Authored Book (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 529)
Note: ?N.W. Alcock, Old Title Deeds (Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd., 1986), 32.
Li Huazi (???), ??????????? (????????)?(???: ??????? , 2006), 53.
Following footnotes for the same book: ?? Herdt, 32.
???, 53.
? HYPERLINK “http://www.library.wwu.edu/ref/Refhome/chicago.html” l “For%20subsequent%20references%20to%20the%20same%20source:” More examples.
Bibliography (one author): ? Alcock, N.W. Old Title Deeds. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd., 1986.
Li Huazi (???), ??????????? (????????)?, ???: ???????, 2006.
Note (three or more authors): ?Mary Jones et al., A History of the World (Bellingham: From the Beginning Press, 2000).
Following footnotes for the same book: ?Jones et al., History of the World, 17.
Bibliography (three or more authors): ?Jones, Mary, Frank Smith, Alex Jackson and Sarah Pope. A History of the World. Bellingham: From the Beginning Press, 2000.
For works having more than three authors, a note citation should give the name of the first author followed by “et al” or “and others.” The bibliography citation should list all the authors. ?
Primary Sources (????)
Sufficient bibliographic information should be given for traditional primary sources as well, although you may well want to also provide traditional chapter and page numbers. It is usually a very good idea to cite the modern edition that you are using. For example, if you are citing the Bible, even while you would probably give the standard chapter and verse information, you should also tell me if you are using the Jerusalem Bible, reading the Greek of the Septuagint as published by the Oxford Classics Library, and so forth.
Primary sources don’t always have clear author, in which case, it is acceptable not to include the author’s name. You generally do not have to cite “Anonymous” or “????.”
It is hard to insist on one clear set of rules for texts which were produced before modern bibliographic conventions. Use your judgment, but provide enough information so that I can find the passage in question without too much difficulty.
For instance:
Note:??????( HYPERLINK “http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%A6%96%E7%88%BE” o “??” ??: ??????, 1974), 235.
Bibliography: ??????, ??: ??????, 1974.
Note that the traditional chapter (?) and page (?) of this particular location in the text could be represented as 2:49a, although the facsimile edition that I am using does not include the original numbering for the pages. Also note that, in the original text, the chapters were numbered according to the Book of Changes. So, the second chapter is, in fact, numbered ?, following the famous line in the Book of Changes, “????.” While it probably would be excessive to include that information in this case, one might under certain circumstances include such bibliographic information.
To return to this text, some information that one might well want to include could be the fact that the passage in question is from an entry of information concerning the administrative region of Musan (??) in present-day North Korea. So one might write the following footnote:
Note: Entry for Musan (??), ??????(??: ??????, 1974), 235.
This might be especially significant if you are quoting from famous classics such as The Confucian Analects (??) or the 300 Tang Poems (?????), since I might not be using the same edition that you are using. So it would be a good idea to provide some traditional bibliographic information. For instance, if you are quoting from the first chapter of the Confucian Analects, please provide the traditional chapter heading ???? as well as the information for the particular edition that you are using.
Also please note that a great many primary sources are now made available on-line. Use on-line sources with some caution, and whenever possible consult works published by such reputable outfits as South Korea’s ??????? (http://www.history.go.kr/) or Taiwan’s ????? (http://www.sinica.edu.tw). Obviously, a link to the source should be provided as well, but try to provide sufficient other information, including, possibly, the traditional volume and page-numbers or the traditional date of the entry in the case of a chronicle.
Note: ?????? 25:4a (1788?.1?. 12?), accessed via http://sillok.history.go.kr on February 25, 2013, 10:09 PM.
Bibliography: Probably you would not need to place this in the bibliography.
Please also see my note about citing primary sources above.
Translator, Compiler, Editor with an Author (Chicago Manual of Style, pp. 535, 559)??Note: ?Claude Julien, Canada: Europe’s Last Chance, trans. Penny Williams (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1968).?(trans. or ed. or comp.)
Bibliography:?Julien, Claude. Canada: Europe’s Last Chance. Translated by Penny Williams. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1968. (Translated by, Edited by, or Compiled by
Chapter or Article in an Edited Book or Anthology (Chicago Manual of Style, p. 535)
Note: ?Rodolfo Fiallos, “An Overview of the Process of Dating Undated Medieval Charters: Latest Results and Future Developments,” in Dating Undated Medieval Charters, ed. Michael Gervers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2000), 37-48.
Wang Zhaolan (???) , ?15??????????????????????????? (??: ???????, 1996), 33.
Bibliog


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Marketing Management Report writing

Marketing Managemnt Report writing
Each student will work on a single case study that has been allotted to them. The questions are given at the end of the case study. Dates for individual coursework submissions will be provided by the programme administrator
Marketing strategy for growth
Introduction
Businesses must respond to change to remain competitive. Developing appropriate strategies which allow them to move forward is essential. Wilkinson is a prime example of a business that has responded to changing customer needs throughout its history. It is one of the UK’s long-established retailers of a wide range of food, home, office, garden and health and beauty products.
Growing the business
James Kemsey (JK) Wilkinson opened his first Wilkinson Store in Charnwood Street, Leicester in 1930. After the Second World War, the 1950s saw a rise in the use of labour-saving devices and DIY. Wilkinson responded by making this type of product the focus of its sales.
In the 1960s customers wanted more convenience shopping. Wilkinson started selling groceries and supermarket goods and created the Wilko brand. In the 1980s Wilkinson extended its range of low-cost products to include quality clothing, toys, toiletries and perfumes.
In 1995 it opened a central distribution centre in Worksop, serving stores in the north of England and in 2004, a new distribution centre opened in Wales. In 2005 Wilkinson launched its Internet shopping service, offering over 800,000 product lines for sale online. Wilkinson currently has over 300 stores, which carry an average of 25,000 product lines. 40% of these are Wilko ‘own-brand’ products. The company’s target is to see this element grow and to have over 500 stores by 2012.
Competition
Wilkinson’s growth places it in the top 30 retailers in the UK. Recently it has faced increasing challenges from competitors, such as the supermarket sector. Wilkinson needed to combat this and identify new areas for growth.
Over two years it conducted extensive market research. This has helped it create a marketing strategy designed to continue growing by targeting a new market segment – the student population. This case focuses on how Wilkinson created and implemented this strategy, using the findings of its market research to drive the strategy forward.
Marketing strategy
To grow, a business needs to give consumers what they want, at a price they are satisfied with, when they want it and make a profit for the company. Wilkinson commissioned market research which identified key potential for growth in the student sector. It had to develop a strategy for growth that not only covered the specific requirements of this target group, but also linked closely with the company’s overall aims and objectives.
The key elements that need to be in place for business planning are:
• aims – describe the overall goals of a business
• objectives – are steps which managers decide need to be taken in order to achieve the overall aims
• strategy – is a plan which outlines all the medium and long-term steps that need to be taken in order to achieve a given target
• tactics – are what the business does in the short-term – these respond to opportunities and threats identified when preparing the original strategy
Strategies may be to combat competition, to improve the position of the company in the market or to grow the business. The type of strategy required will depend upon several factors but the main influences include:
• number and power of competitors;
• company strengths;
• size of business;
• financial position;
• Government influences.
Ansoff’s matrix
Marketing strategy aims to communicate to customers the added-value of products and services. This considers the right mix of design, function, image or service to improve customer awareness of the business’ products and ultimately to encourage them to buy.
An important tool for helping develop an appropriate marketing strategy is Ansoff’s Matrix. This model looks at the options for developing a marketing strategy and helps to assess the levels of risk involved with each option.
Marketing strategies may focus on the development of products or markets. Doing more of what a business already does carries least risk; developing a completely new product for a new audience carries the highest risk both in terms of time and costs.
Based on its research, Wilkinson committed to a market development strategy to sell its products to a new audience of students. This is a medium risk strategy as it requires the business to find and develop new customers. It also carries costs of the marketing campaigns to reach this new group.
The main focus of the strategy was to increase awareness of the brand among students and encourage them to shop regularly at Wilkinson stores.
Market research
Market research is vital for collecting data on which to base the strategy. Market research takes one of two main forms primary research and secondary research.
• Primary research involves collecting data first hand. This can take many forms, the main ones being interview, questionnaires, panels and observation.
• Secondary research involves collecting data which already exists. This includes using information from reports, publications, internet research and company files.
Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of primary research are that it is recent, relevant and designed specifically for the company’s intended strategy. The main disadvantage is that it is more expensive than secondary research and can be biased if not planned well.
Secondary research is relatively cheap, can be undertaken quickly and so enables decision-making sooner. However, secondary research can go out of date and may not be entirely relevant to the business’ needs.
Wilkinson undertook primary market research using questionnaires from students across the UK and secondary research using government and university admissions data. The statistics revealed that there were three million potential student customers. They had a combined annual spend of around £9 billion per year.
This research confirmed that the choice of focusing on the student market as a means of growth was valid. Wilkinson undertook further research to identify how to reach students and persuade them to start shopping at Wilkinson stores. This information was used to formulate a focus strategy. This was aimed specifically at the needs of the student market segment.
Marketing to students
Wilkinson involved 60 universities in research, using questionnaires distributed to students initially in Years 2 and 3 of a range of universities and then to ‘freshers’ (new students) through the University and Colleges Admission Service. This ensured the widest range of students was included to eliminate bias. It also gave a wide range of responses.
From this initial group, students were asked a second set of questions. Participants were rewarded with Amazon vouchers to encourage a good take-up. The research focused on two areas:
1. student awareness of the Wilkinson brand;
2. reasons why students were currently not using the stores regularly.
The market research enabled Wilkinson to put together its marketing strategy. The aim was to ensure the student population began shopping at Wilkinson stores early in their student experience. This would help to maintain their customer loyalty to Wilkinson throughout their student years and also to develop them as future customers after university. Repeat business is the key to sustained growth.
Promotional tactics
Wilkinson wanted to create satisfied customers with their needs met by the Wilkinson range of products. A marketing campaign was launched which focused on a range of promotional tactics, specifically designed to appeal to university students:
• Wilkinson attending freshers’ fairs and giving free goody bags with sample products directly to students;
• direct mail flyers to homes and student halls, prior to students arriving;
• advertisements with fun theme, e.g. showing frying pans as tennis racquets;
• web banners;
• offering discounts of 15% with first purchase using the online store;
• gift vouchers;
• free wall planners.
The challenge was to get students into Wilkinson stores. The opportunity was to capture a new customer group at an early stage and provide essential items all year round. This would lead to a committed customer group and secure repeat business.
Outcomes/evaluation
Wilkinson wanted to know what would inspire students to shop at Wilkinson more and what factors would help to attract non-customers. The research provided significant primary information to analyse the effects of the campaign.
Evaluation
Wilkinson used questionnaires collected from the first year undergraduates to gather qualitative data. In addition, Wilkinson obtained quantitative data from various other sources, including:
• redemption rates how many people used the discount vouchers when buying;
• sales analysis how much extra business did the stores handle;
• footfall in stores analysis how many extra people went into stores.
This information helped Wilkinson to develop its plans for future marketing campaigns.
It identified motivation factors for the student audience which would help to encourage future purchase. Key factors included products being cheaper than competitors and easy access to stores. The layout of the store was another major problem affecting repeat visits. 23% of students questioned gave ‘distance from university’ as a reason for not regularly visiting the store.
These findings have been taken on board by Wilkinson in its future planning of store locations and layouts.
Outcomes
Researching students’ opinions after the campaign showed that:
• Awareness of Wilkinson brand had significantly risen from 77% to 95% of those interviewed. This brought it in line with Morrison supermarkets, a key competitor.
• 17% of students who received a goody bag at freshers’ fairs used the 15% discount voucher. A further 58% intended to use the voucher. The campaign had either got students to enter the Wilkinson stores or increase their intention to visit the store.
• Of particular importance to Wilkinson was that the campaign had made the company more appealing to 67% of students interviewed. This fulfilled one of the main objectives of the campaign and was reinforced by figures from existing students. Prior to the campaign 13% shopped at Wilkinson at least once a month. After the campaign this had risen to 33%.
Interviews with fresher students after the campaign shows which marketing tactics Wilkinson used with the students had the greatest impact on their awareness.
Conclusion
Wilkinson marketing strategy began with its corporate aim to grow and increase stores across the UK. It was facing increased competition from supermarkets and needed to identify an area to focus on. To pursue a growth strategy, Wilkinson used market research to identify new target customers. This enabled it to prepare marketing strategies to fit the audience. Primary and secondary research was used to find out customer views regarding its brand. Data indicated the student market segment was a significant area to focus on to achieve market development.
A marketing campaign using data from a follow-up survey was put in place. The campaign showed significant increase in students’ levels of awareness about Wilkinson and its products. It encouraged them either to shop more or to try Wilkinson for the first time. The campaign helped to achieve many of the business’ aims, creating increased brand awareness and repeat visits. It also helped to inform the company’s future strategies for growth.
Market research gathered will help to formulate future plans for new stores in line with a commitment to providing communities with affordable products.
Questions
1. What marketing approaches might have been employed, apart from marketing research, for Wilkinson’s to use when examining its future growth strategy?
2. How might the company have applied the TOWS matrix when developing new marketing strategies?
3. Critically evaluate Wilkinson’s decision to base its future plans for new stores on the basis of its student survey.
4. Suggest and justify ways in which Wilkinson can ensure that it retains or improves its position in a fiercely competitive market place.

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Blog

Blog
Order Description
Submission instructions Each blog entry should be saved as a single Microsoft Word file (.docx) and uploaded to the appropriate repository on blackboard (below) and should include in addition to the body of the text: • A title • A reference in Harvard or Vancouver format. • A hyperlink (web link) to the article upon which you have commented • A word-count for the body of the text (ie excluding title, reference and hyperlink) which should be no more than 500 words in length. Summative blog entries will be marked anonymously (i.e. with the marker blinded to the student’s identity) so it is important that you do not include your name anywhere in the files you submit. Mark calculation and assessment criteria This exercise contributes 20% towards the final module mark. The mark which will be used is the mean average of your final two blog entries. The marking criteria are broadly outlined below: Weighting Marking criteria Choice of article 10% Was a primary research article chosen?* Was the article correctly referenced? Was a hyperlink to the article included? Methods 25% Were the study methods, protocol, measurements and endpoints described appropriately? Results 25% Were the results described appropriately (including quantitative description). Critical analysis 30% Was relevant critical analysis included? Style 10% Was the style appropriate for a blog entry and for the intended audience? Was the article written in good English. Was a word-count included* Total 100% *If the blog entry does not describe a piece of primary research, exceeds the word limit, or includes an inaccurate word count, a mark of zero will be awarded General guidance on writing blog entries Choice of Article You need to comment on primary research articles. If you are in any doubt as to whether an article should be considered primary research, look and see whether it has a methods section. If it does not, it is almost certainly not primary research. Laboratory studies and clinical trials make excellent choices. You could also comment on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, however, the methods used in these types of publications are quite complex (including complex statistics) and may be difficult to summarise in a short blog entry. Studies which test an explicit hypothesis perhaps lent themselves more easily to critical analysis in comparison to observational studies which look at trends in diseases or prescribing. The inspiration for your blog entries can come from anywhere: you might read about a study in the newspaper and decide to find the original paper in an academic journal. You might come across paper during your background reading for the module. At some point, you will have to use an academic database. I will recommend the names of some below, and I would encourage you to become familiar with them and to discover which ones you find most easy-to-use. They’re very powerful search tools, and allow you to filter the results by date, or by type of article (for instance you might want to restrict your search to clinical trials only). Pubmed Scopus ScienceDirect Web of Knowledge You may know of others, and are welcome to use them. in addition the University has its own search tool which is called ‘Discover’ and is particularly helpful, because it helps you find articles which are available in the universities electronic library collection. The purpose of my own blog www.cardiovascularnews.co.uk is occasionally to highlight areas of interest and relevant articles to you, rather than to provide model blog entries. Structure of your blog entry You can structure your blog entry however you see fit, hoever you should include the following information: Introduction You should briefly describe the purpose and aims of the study you are describing. Remember your audience is GPs and pharmacists. You shouldn’t need to give long explanations of common medical conditions. Remember that the marks are awarded for your description and critical analysis of the research. Description of methods Think carefully about including the most important details in the methods, because you will not be able to include all the details. You should include details of the the experimental protocol, but do not forgot to mention what was measured (and how) and what the primary end point of the study was (or which value was compared between groups.). As your critical analysis is largely dependent on the methods, it is important to make clear how the experiment was conducted. Description of results It is important to discuss the most important results quantitatively and to consider the most important information to include in a short summary. Don’t be tempted to write too much about statistical significance, without commenting on the size of the effect measured. Many papers will include lots of measurements, you need to consider which are the most important, as you won’t have room to discuss them all. Critical analysis This is probably the most difficult section (and consequently, where the most marks are available). Essentially, you should aim to consider the work critically, rather than simply accepting the authors’ conclusion. You can approach this task by asking questions such as: Were the methods (and endpoints) appropriate? What do the results mean? Is the authors’ interpretation of the results supported by the data? You should try to judge each paper on its own merits. If a paper set out to test the hypothesis that ‘dogs enjoy eating bones’ it’s not really fair to criticise it for not asking whether cats like eating bones. Proposing an extension to a study (however interesting) is not critical analysis. You may wish, briefly, to discuss the implications of the research which is again interesting but is not critical analysis. Try to keep your critical analysis specific rather than general for example, rather than automatically saying ‘the experiment would have been better if the sample size had been bigger’ consider whether this is really the case. In very may experiments it is true, but it requires some justification. Experimenters don’t usually pick a sample size (n number) out of thin air, they will perform calculations to work out the sample size they need. A trial that is bigger than it needs to be costs more money and may have ethical implications relating to unnecessary experimentation on volunteers or animals. A comment along the lines of ‘the authors don’t state how they calculated their sample size’ or ‘the authors calculated their sample size but were not able to recruit enough volunteers’ is a much more useful indication that something is wrong. It is important to comment on bias e.g. ‘there were more people with hypertension in the control group than the test group’ and to think carefully about critical analysis of the measurements and endpoints used in the trial. Many studies will claim that drug x reduces cardiovascular risk, when in fact they have only measured the effect of drug x on blood pressure, not on cardiovascular events. If a trial uses the ‘Penson depression score’ as its endpoint, you need to question what this score is? What does it mean? Has it been validated in other trials? What are its strengths and weaknesses?. Some experiments don’t seem to have a clear hypothesis and don’t state the primary endpoint in the methods. This is often the case with trials involving mental health where the patients will be assessed for severity of symptoms using 4 or 5 different scales before and after an intervention. You should be asking if it is necessary to use so many scales , or whether the authors were ‘hedging their bets’ and hoping they would see a significant difference in at least one of the measurements. It is also interesting to comment on the way in which numerical data are treated. For example, Some trials of antihypertensives set out arbitrary categories for BP (ie normal<140/90<hypertensive) and then presented their results saying ‘at the end of the trial 20% of people in the control group were hypertensive and 10% of people in the treatment group were hypertensive’ When data is categorised li
ke this, it is a good idea to ask why? Is there a good reason? Or would it have been better to present the mean BP in each group? You may find it helpful to commented on the statistics used in published work. Often these are very ropy!

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Why Children talk to themselves

Paper details:
read article and please use the attached format form to do assignment.
included are powerpoint chapter materials to aid the assignment.
—-,~——
Article 11
Why Children Talk
to Themselves
Although children are often rebuked for talking to themselves out loud,
doing so helps them control their behavior and master new skills
by Laura E. Berk
A
s any parent, teacher, sitter
or casual observer will notice,
young children talk to
themselves-sometimes as much or
even more than they talk to other
people. Depending on the situation,
this private speech (as modem psychologists
call the behavior) can account
for 20 to 60 percent of the
remarks a child younger than 10
years makes. Many parents and educators
misinterpret this chatter as a
sign of disobedience, inattentiveness
LAURAE. BERKis currently a professor
of psychology and Outstanding
University Researcher at Illinois
State University. She received her
B.A.in psychology from the University
of California, Berkeley,and her
M.A. and PhD. in educational psychology
from the University of Chicago.
Berk has been a visiting scholar
at Cornell Universit:y, at the University
of California, LosAngeles,and at
Stanford University, and her research
has been funded by the U.s. Officeof
Education and the National Institute
of Child Health and Human Development.
She is co-editor of Private
Speech: From Social Interaction to SelfRegulation
and author of two widely
distributed textbooks, Child Development
and Infants, Children, and Adolescents.
She has also written numerous
journal articles.
or even mental instability. In fact,
private speech is an essential part of
cognitive development for all children.
Recognition of this fact should
strongly influence how both normal
children and children who have
trouble learning are taught.
Although private speech has presumably
been around as long as language
itself, the political climate in
Russia in the 1930s, and the authority
of a great Western cognitive theorist,
prevented psychologists and
educators from understanding its
significance until only very recently.
In Russia more than six decades ago,
Lev S. Vygotsky. a prominent psychologist,
first documented the importance
of private speech. But at that
time, the Stalinist regime systematically
persecuted many intellectuals,
and purges at universities and research
institutes were common.
In fear, Soviet psychologists
turned on one another. Some declared
Vygotsky a renegade, and
several of his colleagues and students
split from his circle. According
to the recollections of one of Vygotsky’s
students, the Communist party
scheduled a critical” discussion” in
which Vygotsky’s ideas would be
the major target. But in 1934, before
Vygotsky could replicate and extend
his preliminary studies or defend his
position to the party, he died of tuberculosis.
Two years later the Communist
party banned his published
work.
In addition to not knowing about
Vygotsky, Western psychologists and
educators were convinced by the
eminent Swiss theorist Jean Piaget
that private speech plays no positive
role in normal cognitive development.
In the 1920s, even before Vygotsky
began his inquiries, Piaget
had completed a series of seminal
studies in which he carefully recorded
the verbalizations of three- to
seven-year-olds at the J. J. Rousseau
Institute of the University of Geneva.
Besides social remarks, Piaget
identified three additional types of
utterances that were not easily understood
or clearly addressed to a
listener: the children repeated syllables
and sounds playfully, gave soliloquies
and delivered what Piaget
called collective monologues.
Piaget labeled these three types of
speech egocentric, expressing his view
that they sprang only from immature
minds. Young children, he reasoned,
engage in egocentric speech because
they have difficulty imagining another’s
perspective. Much of their talk
then is talk for themselves and serves
little communicative function. Instead
it merely accompanies, supplements
or reinforces motor activity or takes
the form of non sequiturs: one child’s
verbaIization stimulates speech in another,
but the partner is expected nei-
54 From Scientific American, November 1994, pp. 78-83. CI 1994 by laura E. Berk. Reprinted by permission.
Varieties of Private Speech
Egocentric Communication Remarks directed to another that make no sense
David says to Mark, who is sining next to him on
irom the listener’s nPrsnPrtive.
the rut’ ~lt broke” without exolainino what or when.
fantasy Play A child role-plays and talks to objects or creates Jay snaps, -Out of my way!” to a chair after he
sound effects for them. bumos inlo it.
Emotional Release Comments nol directed 10 a lislener Ihat ex.press
Rachel is sitting at her desk with an anxious look on
feelings, or those that seem to be attempts to review her face, repeating to herself, -My mom’s sick, my
feelin;;s about nast events or thouphts. mom’s sick .•
Self.Direction A child describes the task at hand and gives Carla. while doing a page in her math book says out
himself or herself directions out loud. loud. “Six”. Then. counting on her fingers. she
continues. “Seven, eight, nine, to. It’s 10, ii’s 1O.
The answer is 10.
Reading Aloud A child read written material aloud or sounds USher-lock Holm-lock, Sherlock Holme,” Tommy
out words.
reads. leaving off the final “s” in his second, more
successful attemnt.
Inaudible Muttering Utterances so quiet that an observer cannot Angela mumbles inaudibly to herself as she works on
undersland them. a math problem.
ther to listen nor understand. Piaget
believed private speech gradually
disappears as children become capable
of real social interaction.
Although several preschool teachers
and administrators openly questioned
Piaget’s ideas, he had the last
word until Vygotsky’s work reached
the West in the 1960s. Three years
after Joseph Stalin’s death in 1953,
Nikita S. Khrushchev criticized
Stalin’s “rule by terror” and announced
in its place a policy that
encouraged greater intellectual freedom.
The 20-year ban on Vygotsky’s
writings came to an end. In 1962 an
English translation of Vygotsky’s
collection of essays, Thought and
Language, appeared in the U.s.
Within less than a decade, a team
led by Lawrence Kohlberg of Harvard
University had compiled provocative
evidence in support of
Vygotsky’s ideas.
In the late 1970s some American
psychologists were becoming disenchanted
with Piaget’s theory, and at
the same time, a broader range of
Vygotsky’s writings appeared in
English. These conditions, coupled
with Kohlberg’s results, inspired a
flurry of new investigations. Indeed,
since the mid-1980s the number of
studies done on private speech in
the West has increased threefold.
Most of these studies, including my
own, corroborate Vygotsky’s views.
In his papers Vygotsky described
a strong link between social experience,
speech and learning. According
to the Russian, the aspects of reality
a child is ready to master lie
within what he called the zone of
proximal (or potential) development.
It refers to a range of tasks
that the child cannot yet accomplish
without guidance from an adult or
more skilled peer. When a child discusses
a challenging task with a
mentor, that individual offers spoken
direction and strategies. The
child incorporates the language of
those dialogues into his or her private
speech and then uses it to guide
independent efforts.
“The most significant moment in
the course of intellectual development,”
Vygotsky wrote, ” … occurs
when speech and practical activity,
two previously completely independent
lines of development, converge.”
The direction of development,
he argued, is not one in which social
communication eventually replaces
egocentric utterances, as Piaget had
claimed. Instead Vygotsky proposed
that early social communication precipitates
private speech. He maintained
that sodal communication
gives rise to all uniquely human,
higher cognitive processes. By communicating
with mature members of
society, children learn to master activities
and think in ways that have
meaning in their culture.
As the child gains mastery over
his or her behavior, private speech
need not occur in a fully expanded
11. Why Children Talk to Themselves
form; the self, after all, is an extremely
understanding listener. Consequently,
children omit words and
phrases that refer to things they already
know about a given situation.
They state only those aspects that
still seem puzzling. Once their cognitive
operations become well practiced,
children start to “think words”
rather than saying them. Gradually,
private speech becomes internalized
as silent, inner speech-those conscious
dialogues we hold with ourselves
while thinking and acting.
Nevertheless, the need to engage in
private speech never disappears.
Whenever we encounter unfamiliar
or demanding activities in our lives,
private speech resurfaces. It is a tool
that helps us overcome obstacles
and acquire new skills.
C
umentlY two American research
programs, my own
and that of Rafael M. Diaz at
Stanford University, have sought to
confirm and build on Vygotsky’s fi)ldings.
Our respective efforts began
with similar questions: Do all children
use private speech? Does it help them
guide their actions? And does it originate
in social communication? To find
out, I chose to observe children in
natural settings at school; Diaz selected
the laboratory.
Ruth A. Garvin, one of my
graduate students, and I followed
36 low-income Appalachian five- to
55
2 .:. COGNITION, LANGUAGE, AND
10-year-olds, who attended a mission
school in the mountains of eastern
Kentucky. We recorded speech in
the classroom, on the playground, in
the halls and in the lunchroom
throughout the day-paying special
attention to those remarks not specifically
addressed to a listener.
Our findings revealed that egocentric
speech, Piaget’s focus, seldom
occurred. Most of the comments we
heard either described or served to
direct a child’s actions, consistent
with the assumption that self-guidance
is the central function of private
speech. Moreover, the children
talked to themselves more often
when working alone on challenging
tasks and also when their teachers
were not immediately available to
help them. In either case, the children
needed to take charge of their
own behavior.
Furthermore, we found evidence
suggesting that private speech develops
similarly in all children and
that it arises in social experience.
The private speech of the Appalachian
students changed as they grew
older in ways that were much like
those patterns Kohlberg had reported
a decade and a half earlier.
Middle-class children, such as
those Kohlberg observed, speak out
loud to themselves with increasing
frequency between four and six years
of age. Then, during elementary
school, their private speech takes the
form of inaudible muttering. The Appalachian
children moved through
this same sequence but did so more
slowly. At age 10, more than 40 percent
of their private speech remained
highly audible, whereas Kohlberg’s
IO-year-olds spoke out loud to themselves
less than 7 percent of the time.
To explain the difference, we
stuelied Appalachian culture and
made a striking discovery. Whereas
midclle-class parents frequently converse
with their children, Appalachian
parents do so much less often.
Moreover, they usually rely more on
gestures than on words. If Vygotsky’s
theory is correct, that private
speech stems from social communication,
then this tacilurn home enviLEARNING:
Early Cognitive and Physical Development
ronment might explain the slow de- ~luming to the classroolJl..-
velopment of private speech in Ap- this time, to the laborato!)’
palachian children. hODIat Illinois State Unj.
While our Appalachian study versily-l embarked on a series of
was under way, Diaz and one of his stuelies to test these intriguing passi.
graduate students, Mamie H. bilities. My team of observers care.
Frauenglass, videotaped 32 three- to fully recorded the private speech and
six-year-olds in the laboratory as task-related actions of 75 first to third
the youngsters matched pictures graders as they worked alone at their
and solved puzzles. Frauenglass desks on math problems. Their teach_
and Diaz also found that private ers considered this work to be appmspeech
becomes less audible with priately challenging for each child.
age. Yet their results, along with Graduate student Jennifer A. Bivens
those of other researchers, posed se- and I then followed the first graders
rious challenges to Vygotsky’s the- and monitored their behavior as
ory. First, many children emitted second and third graders.
only a few utterances, and some Every child we observed talked to
none at all-seeming proof that pri- himself or herself-{)n average 60
vate speech is not universal. percent of the time. Also, as in preAnother
difficulty arose. If pri- vious studies, many children whose
vate speech facilitates self-regula- remarks described or otherwise
tion, as Vygotsky believed, then it commented on their activity reshould
relate to how a child behaves ceived lower scores on homework
while working and how well the and achievement tests taken that
child performs. Yet in Frauenglass same year. Yet private speech that
and Diaz’s study, children who used was typical for a particular age premore
private speech did worse on dieted gains in math achievement
the tasks set before them! Other re- over time. Specifically, first graders
searchers had reported weak and who made many self-guiding comsometimes
negative associations be- ments out loud or quietly e1idbetter
tween private speech and perform- at second-grade math. Likewise, secance
as well. and graders who often muttered to
Diaz crafted some insightful ex- themselves grasped third-grade
planations for these outcomes. Af- math more easily the following year.
ter a close look at Vygotsky’s Also, the relationship we noted bedefinition
of the zone of proximal tween a child’s use of private speech
development, Diaz concluded that and his or her task-related behavior
perhaps the tasks typically given in bolstered Vygotsky’s hypothesis that
the laboratory were not suitable for self-guieling comments help children
evoking private speech in all chil- direct their actions. Children whose
dren. Some children may have speech included a great deal of taskbeen
so familiar with solving puz- irrelevant wordplay or emotional exzles
and matching pictures that the pression often squirmed in their seats
cognitive operations they needed or chewed on or tapped their pencils
to succeed were already automatic. against their desks.
Other children may have found In contrast, children who frethese
tasks so difficult that they quently made audible comments
could not master them without about their work used more nonverhelp.
In either case, self-guiding bal techniques to help them overprivate
speech would not be ex- come e1ifficulties, such as counting
pected. Furthermore, Diaz rea- on fingers or tracking a line of text
soned that since private speech using a pencil. Finally, children who
increases when children encounter most often used quiet private speech
difficulties, it would often coincide rarely fidgeted and were highly atwith
task failure. He suggested tentive. Overall, children who prothat
the beneficial impact of pri- gressed most rapiclly from auelible
vate speech might be delayed. remarks to inner speech were more
56
11. Why Children Talk to Themselves
advanced in their ability to control
(J1otor activity and focus attention.
The development of private speech
and task-related behavior thus went
hand in hand.
In a later investigation, Sarah T.
SpuhL another of my graduate students,
and I attempted to witness in
the laboratory the dynamic relationship
Vygotsky highlighted between
private speech and learningnamely,
private speech diminishes
as performance improves. We added
a new dimension to our research as
well: an exploration of how the interaction
between a child and an adult
canfoster self-regulation through private
speech.
We asked 30 four- and five-yearoldsto
assemble Lego pieces into a reproduction
of a model. Each subject
attempted the exercise in three IS-minute
sessions, scheduled no more than
two to four days apart. nus timing
pennitted us to track their increasing
competence. We pretested each child
to ensure that the Lego tasks would
be sufficiently challenging-something
that had not been done before.
Only novice Lego builders participated.
Two weeks before the sessions
began, we videotaped each mother
helping her child with activities that
required skills similar to those involved
in Lego building, such as fitting
blocks together and matching
their colors and shapes.
N
ext we evaluated the communication
between the
mothers and their children
as they solved problems together.
According to previous research, parenting
that is warm and responsive
but exerts sufficient control to guide
and encourage children to acquire
new skills promotes competence.
(Psychologists term such parenting
authoritative.)In contrast, both authoritarian
parenting (little warmth and
high control) and pennissive parenting
(high warmth and little control)
predict learning and adjustment
problems. Based on this evidence, we
thought that the authoritative style
might best capture those features of
adult teaching we wished to identify.
Our results revealed that children
who have authoritative mothers
more often used self-guiding private
speech. Among the four-year-olds,
those experiencing authoritative
teaching showed greater improvement
in skill over the course of the
three Leg-building sessions. Furthermore,
we did a special statistical
analysis, the outcome of which suggested
that private speech mediates
the relationship between authoritative
parenting and task success-a
finding consistent with Vygotsky’s
assumptions.
Unlike previous laboratory research,
every child in our sample
used private speech. As expected,
the children’s comments became
more internalized over the course of
the three sessions as their skill with
the Lego blocks increased. And once
again, private speech predicted future
gains better than it did concurrent
task success. In particular,
children who used private speech
that was appropriate for their ageaudible,
self-guiding utterances at
age four and inaudible muttering at
age five–achieved the greatest gains.
N
extI turned my attention to
children having serious
learning and behavior problems.
Many psychologists had concluded
that elementary school
pupils who were inattentive, impulsive
or had learning disabilities suffered
from deficits in using private
speech. To treat these children, researchers
had designed and widely
implemented training programs
aimed at inducing children to talk to
themselves. In a typical program,
children are asked to mimic a therapist
acting out self-guiding private
speech while performing a task.
Next the therapist demonstrates lip
movements only and finally asks the
children to verbalize covertly.
Despite the intuitive appeal of
this training, the approach most
often failed. I suspected that the design
of these treatments might have
been premature. The procedures
were not grounded in systematic research
on how children having
learning and behavior problems use
private speech. The spontaneous
self-regulatory utterances of such children
remained largely uninvestigated.
To fill this gap in our knowledge,
my graduate student Michael K Potts
and I studied 19 six- to 12-year-old
boys who had been clinically diagnosed
with attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADl-ID), a condition
characterized by severe inattentiveness,
impulsivity and overactivity.
Once again, we observed private
speech as the subjects worked on
mathematics problems at their desks.
We compared these observations to
the private speech of 19 normal boys
matched in age and verbal ability.
Contrary to the assumptions underlying
self-instructional training,
ADHD boys did not use less private
speech. Instead they made substantially
more audible, self-guiding
remarks than did normal boys. Furthermore,
we examined age-related
trends and found that the only difference
between the two groups was
that ADHD boys made the transition
from audible speech to more internalized
forms at a later age.
We uncovered a possible explanation
for this developmental lag. Our
results implied that ADHD children’s
severe attention deficit prevented
their private speech from
gaining efficient control over their
behavior. First, only in the least distractible
ADHD boys did audible
self-guiding speech correlate with
improved attention to math assignments.
Second, we tracked a subsample
of ADHD subjects while
they were both taking and not taking
stimulant drug medication, the
most widely used treatment for the
disorder. (Although stimulants do
not cure ADHD, a large body of evidence
indicates that they boost attention
and academic performance
in most children who take them.) We
found that this medication sharply
increased the maturity of private
speech in ADHD boys. And only
when these children were medicated
57
2 .:. COGNITION, LANGUAGE, AND LEARNING: Early Cognilive and Physical Development
did the most mature form of private
speech, inaudible muttering. relate
to improved self-control.
The promising nature of these findings
encouraged me to include children
having learning disabilities in
the research. My colleague Steven
Landau joined me in observing 112
third to sixth graders working on
math and English exercises at their
desks. Half of the children met the Illinois
state guidelines for being classified
as learning disabled: their
academic achievement fell substantially
below what would be expected
based on their intelligence. The other
half served as controls. As in the
ADHD study, we found that the chil.
dren who had learning clisabilities
used more auclible, self-guiding utterances
and internalized their private
speech at a later age than did children
who clid not have a clisability When
we looked at a subgroup of learning
disabled children who also clisplayed
symptoms of ADHD, this trend was
even more pronounced.
R
search on children suffering
from persistent learning
ifficulties vigorously supports
Vygotsky’s view of private
speech. These children follow the
same course of development as do
their unaffected age mates, but impairments
in their cognitive processing
and ability to pay attention
make academic tasks more difficult
for them. This clifficulty in turn complicates
verbal self-regulation. Our
findings suggest that training children
who have learning and behavior
problems to talk to themselves while
performing cognitive tasks amounts
to no more than invoking a skill they
already possess. Furthermore, interventions
that push children to move
quickly toward silent self-mmmunication
may be counterproductive. While
concentrating. ADHD and learningclisabled
pupils show heightened dependence
on auclible private speech in
an effort to compensate for their cognitive
impairments.
How can our current knowledge
of private speech guide us in teach-
58
ing children who learn normally and
those who have learning and behavior
problems? The evidence as a
whole indicates that private speech
is a problem-solving tool universally
available to children who grow up
in rich, socially interactive environments.
Several interdependent factors-the
demands of a task, its
social context and individual characteristics
of a child-govern the extent
and ease with which anyone
child uses self-directed speech to
guide behavior. The most profitable
intervention lies not in viewing private
speech as a skill to be trained but
rather in creating conclitions that help
children use private speech effectively
When a child hies new tasks, he or
she needs communicative support
from an adult who is patient and encouraging
and who offers the correct
amount of assistance given the child’s
current skills. For example, when a
child does not understand what an activity
entails, an adult might first give
the child explicit clirections. Once the
child realizes how these actions
relate to the task’s goal, the adult
might offer strategies instead.
Gradually, adults can withdraw this
support as children begin to guide
their own initiatives.
Too often, inattentive and impulsive
children are denied this scaffold
for learning. Because of the stressful
behaviors they bring to the adultchild
relationship, they are frequently
targets of commands, reprimands
and criticism, all of which keep them
from learning how to control their
own actions.
Finally, parents and teachers need
to be aware of the functional value
of private speech. We now know
that private speech is healthy, adaptive
and essential behavior and that
some children need to use it more
often and for a longer period than
others. Still, many adults continue to
regard private speech as meaningless,
socially unacceptable conducteven
as a sign of mental illness. As
a result, they often discourage children
from talking to themselves. At
home, parents can listen to their
child’s private speech and thus gain
insight into his or her plans, goals
and difficulties. Likewise, teachers
can be mindful of the fact that when
pupils use more private speech than
is typical for their age, they may
need extra support and guidance.
Certainly, we have much more to
discover about how children solve
problems using spontaneous private
speech. Nevertheless, Vygotsky’s
theory has greatly deepened
our understanding of this phenomenon.
Today it is helping us design
more effective teaching methods for
all children and treatments for children
suffering from learning and behavior
problems. One can only regret
that earlier generations of psychologists
and educators-and those they
might have helped-<:iid not have
the advantage of Vygotsky’s insights.
FURTHER READING
DEVELOP.lE.’IT OF PRIVATE SPEECH
A.IO.’.,;G LO••..-I~cOME ApPAL”‘CHIA;-‘;
CHILDRE:-‘: Laura E. Berk and Ruth
A. Garvin in Devt’lopmental Psychology.
Vol. 20, ~o. 2. pages 2il-
286; March 1984.
A LONGlTUD[~AL STLDY OF THE DEVELOp.
MENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHIL.
DREN’S PRIVATE SPEECH. 1. A. Bivens
and L. E. Berk in Marill.Palmt’r
Quartl7/I{, Vol. 36, No.4, pages 443-
463; Oct’abeT 1990.
VYGOTSKY: THE M,,:-.: ASO HIS CAL’SE.
Guillermo Blanck in v:,l{gotsky and
Education: Instructional Implications
and Applications of Sociohistorical
Psychology. Edited by luis C. Moll.
Cambridge University Press, 1990.
DEVElOPME:-JT MID FUNCTIO~ALSIG~IFICA:CE
OF PRIVATE SPEECH AMONG ATTE.•.•.
‘TION.DEFICIT HYrERACTIVIll’
DISORDERED A.•.•. TI NOR.1AL BOYS
laura E. Berk and Michael K Potts
in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychol.
ogy, Vol. 19, No.3, pages 357-3i7;
June 1991.
PRIVATE SPEECH. FROM SOCIAL I:-‘:TERAC.
TION TO SELF-REGULATION, Edited
by Rafael M. Diaz and Laura E.
Berk. lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
1992.
PRIVATE SPEECH OF LEAR:-JI:-‘:GDISABLED
A:-ID NORMALLY ACHIEVI:-:G CHILDREN
I:-.JCLASSROOM ACADE.11C A’T>
LABORATORY C01’>.iEXTS Laura E.
Berk and Steven Landau in Child
DC’1.’dopmC’nt, Vol. 64, NO.2, pages
556-571; April 1993.

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Coke’s water bomb: What are the important segmentation variables for the water market in the UK?

Please watch the media ‘Coke’s water bomb’ (and/or use the article) and answer the discussion questions below.
1. What are the important segmentation variables for the water market in the UK?
2. What segments exist for bottled water?
3. What segment(s) did they target?
4. What mistake(s) did Coca-Cola make in the UK?
Please limit your response to between 750–1,000 words, be academic on universities level and include external
references in support of your comments. (References all together at least six.)


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eflective Thinking Is An Important Aid To Adult Learning. To That End, I Ask You To Write A Reflective Essay Related: Cross Cultural Management Essay, LSJU, Ireland

University Leland Stanford Junior University (LSJU)
Subject Cross Cultural Management

Essay Details:

Reflective thinking is an important aid to adult learning. To that end, I ask you to write a reflective essay related to your experiences in the context of the module’s topics. You need to start the assignment a couple of weeks (or more) before the deadline to allow yourself time to reflect and revise the essay. Successfully completing this task requires that from the beginning of the module, you devote some time to reflect on what you have experienced during your day.
It could be applied at the end of any workday, workweek, project, or assignment at work or at the university. You can spend several minutes–more if it involves reflecting on a prolonged period of time–thinking about the experience you have been through and what you can learn from it, about yourself and the society you live in. Supplement these ‘immediate’ reflections with your recollections and analysis of critical encounters you had during the past year, which revolve around culture.
If you did not have recent experiences that involved meeting other cultures (e.g., travel), I encourage you to do so by visiting a cultural community in Dublin (or other cities you live in) and observe some of the behaviors and activities of community members. A core element in this essay is writing about how you have experienced your culture (Irish, Chinese, German, etc) during the past few months/year.

  • Which encounters made you aware of your culture?
  • When do you feel that you behaved in a typical way for your culture?
  • When did you behave in a non-typical way?
  • What were the circumstances?

I encourage you to use examples that include working with colleagues and other Smurfit students and, especially, your experiences with culturally mixed teams, such as for the country presentation assignment in this module.

  • How did the teams’ composition affect its functioning?
  • Communications?
  • Performance of goals?
  • Leadership?
  • Conflicts?
  • What did you learn about yourself from your reactions, experiences, and encounters?

I want you to keep the material we covered at the back of your mind and apply it when relevant in this essay. For example, you can mention values that you think guided your actions or cultural factors that affected your way of communication. Give concrete behavioral examples for the various concepts you mention. At the same time, be careful not to force theoretical concepts from the module on your experience; only use them when relevant and when you are sure they make sense for you.

 
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