1 of 25Which of the following correctly describes the route of urine?Kidney hilus to the bladder
to the ureter
Pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
Glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
Hilus to urethra to bladder
Kidney to bladder to ureterQuestion
2 of 25
What is the outermost region of the kidney called?
3 of 25
Which of the following correctly describes the location of the kidneys?
They are paired organs located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with a rich blood supply and fat capsule surrounding them.
The kidney is a single organ located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with a rich blood supply and fat capsule surrounding them.
They are paired organs located superior to the intestines, with a rich blood supply and fat capsule surrounding them.
They are paired organs located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with a rich blood supply and no fat capsule surrounding them.
They are paired organs located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with little blood supply.Question
4 of 25
Which of the following best describes the glomerulus?
Series of renal tubules
Series of arterioles
Series of capillaries
Series of collecting ducts
Series of both arterioles and renal tubulesQuestion
5 of 25
An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into which of the following?
6 of 25
Urine formed in the nephrons empties directly into what structure?
Loop of Henle
7 of 25
Which of the following is the site where most tubular reabsorption occurs?
Loop of Henle
Proximal convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule
8 of 25
What is the process of glomerular filtration?
An active transport of the fluid part of blood in the glomerular capsule
An active transport of the blood in the peritubular capillaries
A passive filtration of blood in the peritubular capillaries
A passive filtration of the fluid part of blood in the distal convoluted tubule
A passive filtration of blood in the glomerular capsuleQuestion
9 of 25
What is the normal composition of glomerular filtrate?
All components of blood except the formed elements
All components of blood except formed elements and large proteins
Only water and urea from the blood
Only urea and glucose from the blood
All components of blood except cells, large proteins, and waterQuestion
10 of 25
What is the specific gravity or density of normal urine?
1.001 – 1.035
1.030 – 1.040
1.000 – 1.015
less the 1.000
greater than 1.035Question
11 of 25
The normal yellow color of urine is due to what substance?
Breakdown products of WBC destruction
Destruction of hemoglobin
Excretion of urea
Breakdown of melaninQuestion
12 of 25
Which of the following describes urine?
Water and protein not needed by the body
Water, protein, and cells not needed by the body
Nitrogenous wastes and protein only
Nitrogenous wastes, water, and unneeded substances
Water and nitrogenous wastes onlyQuestion
13 of 25
Which of the following statements describes the ureters?
One of the layers of the wall is smooth muscle that propels urine to the bladder.
They carry the urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body.
They enter the bladder on the superior surface.
They are covered with capillaries that reabsorb more water from the urine.
They are composed of only three layers of epithelium.Question
14 of 25
Which of the following describes the wall of the bladder as it fills?
The stratified squamous cells become thinner.
The muscular wall collapses and the transitional epithelium thins.
The muscular wall stretches and the transitional epithelium thins.
The bladder collapses to 5‒7.5 cm.
The trigone area disappears.Question
15 of 25
Select the item below which shows the correct order of events during micturition.
- Urine collects and activates stretch receptors in the bladder walls.
- Urine is forced past the internal sphincter.
- The nervous system starts smooth muscle contractions in the bladder wall.
- The external sphincter is voluntarily controlled by the person.
16 of 25
Where is most of the water in the body located?
Between body cells
Cerebrospinal fluid and glandsQuestion
17 of 25
What is the main mechanism prompting water intake?
Osmoreceptors in the kidney activate the release of ADH.
Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus activate the thirst center.
Release of ADH increases the blood pressure.
Release of aldosterone activates the thirst center.
Excessive saliva production activates the thirst center.Question
18 of 25
Which body system makes corrections to low blood pH the fastest?
19 of 25
What is the result of ADH release?
Prevents excess water loss by the kidneys, increasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressure
Prevents excess water loss by the kidneys, decreasing the blood volume and decreasing blood pressure
Prevents excess water loss by the kidneys, decreasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressure
Increases water loss by the kidneys, increasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressure
Increases water loss by the kidneys, decreasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressureQuestion
20 of 25
Sodium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid is largely regulated by what hormone?
21 of 25
Why is the excretion of bicarbonate ions by the kidney important?
It maintains adequate urinary output.
It maintains acid base balance of the blood.
It stimulates ADH production.
It stimulates erythropoietin production.
It maintains urine pH between 4.5 to 8.0 range.Question
22 of 25
What is a likely cause for urinary retention in an elderly male?
Loss of neural control over the urinary sphincter
Enlarge prostate gland
Diabetes type IIQuestion
23 of 25
What is the name of the inability to voluntarily control the external urethral sphincter?
24 of 25
What kidney disorder involves clogging of the glomerular filter with antigen antibody complexes?
25 of 25
Cloudy urine that contains white blood cells is indicative of what disorder?
Urinary tract infection