Which of the following correctly describes the route of urine?Kidney hilus to the bladder

1 of 25Which of the following correctly describes the route of urine?Kidney hilus to the bladder

to the ureter

Pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

Glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule

Hilus to urethra to bladder

Kidney to bladder to ureterQuestion

2 of 25

What is the outermost region of the kidney called?

Renal cortex

Renal medulla

Renal hilum

Renal pelvis

Renal pyramidsQuestion

3 of 25

Which of the following correctly describes the location of the kidneys?

They are paired organs located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with a rich blood supply and fat capsule surrounding them.

The kidney is a single organ located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with a rich blood supply and fat capsule surrounding them.

They are paired organs located superior to the intestines, with a rich blood supply and fat capsule surrounding them.

They are paired organs located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with a rich blood supply and no fat capsule surrounding them.

They are paired organs located posterior to the intestines, between the T12 and L3 vertebra, with little blood supply.Question

4 of 25

Which of the following best describes the glomerulus?

Series of renal tubules

Series of arterioles

Series of capillaries

Series of collecting ducts

Series of both arterioles and renal tubulesQuestion

5 of 25

An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into which of the following?

Renal artery

Efferent arteriole

Afferent arteriole

Interlobular artery

Mesenteric arteryQuestion

6 of 25

Urine formed in the nephrons empties directly into what structure?

Peritubular capillaries

Loop of Henle

Collecting duct

Urethra

Renal pelvisQuestion

7 of 25

Which of the following is the site where most tubular reabsorption occurs?

Glomerular capsule

Loop of Henle

Proximal convoluted tubule

Distal convoluted tubule

Peritubular capillariesQuestion

8 of 25

What is the process of glomerular filtration?

An active transport of the fluid part of blood in the glomerular capsule

An active transport of the blood in the peritubular capillaries

A passive filtration of blood in the peritubular capillaries

A passive filtration of the fluid part of blood in the distal convoluted tubule

A passive filtration of blood in the glomerular capsuleQuestion

9 of 25

What is the normal composition of glomerular filtrate?

All components of blood except the formed elements

All components of blood except formed elements and large proteins

Only water and urea from the blood

Only urea and glucose from the blood

All components of blood except cells, large proteins, and waterQuestion

10 of 25

What is the specific gravity or density of normal urine?

1.001 – 1.035

1.030 – 1.040

1.000 – 1.015

less the 1.000

greater than 1.035Question

11 of 25

The normal yellow color of urine is due to what substance?

Breakdown products of WBC destruction

Erythropoietin

Destruction of hemoglobin

Excretion of urea

Breakdown of melaninQuestion

12 of 25

Which of the following describes urine?

Water and protein not needed by the body

Water, protein, and cells not needed by the body

Nitrogenous wastes and protein only

Nitrogenous wastes, water, and unneeded substances

Water and nitrogenous wastes onlyQuestion

13 of 25

Which of the following statements describes the ureters?

One of the layers of the wall is smooth muscle that propels urine to the bladder.

They carry the urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body.

They enter the bladder on the superior surface.

They are covered with capillaries that reabsorb more water from the urine.

They are composed of only three layers of epithelium.Question

14 of 25

Which of the following describes the wall of the bladder as it fills?

The stratified squamous cells become thinner.

The muscular wall collapses and the transitional epithelium thins.

The muscular wall stretches and the transitional epithelium thins.

The bladder collapses to 5‒7.5 cm.

The trigone area disappears.Question

15 of 25

Select the item below which shows the correct order of events during micturition.

  1. Urine collects and activates stretch receptors in the bladder walls.
  2. Urine is forced past the internal sphincter.
  3. The nervous system starts smooth muscle contractions in the bladder wall.
  4. The external sphincter is voluntarily controlled by the person.

1-2-3-4

2-3-4-1

3-4-2-1

1-3-2-4

1-3-4-2Question

16 of 25

Where is most of the water in the body located?

Plasma

Cells

Between body cells

Bladder

Cerebrospinal fluid and glandsQuestion

17 of 25

What is the main mechanism prompting water intake?

Osmoreceptors in the kidney activate the release of ADH.

Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus activate the thirst center.

Release of ADH increases the blood pressure.

Release of aldosterone activates the thirst center.

Excessive saliva production activates the thirst center.Question

18 of 25

Which body system makes corrections to low blood pH the fastest?

Urinary system

Endocrine system

Lymphatic system

Respiratory system

Integumentary systemQuestion

19 of 25

What is the result of ADH release?

Prevents excess water loss by the kidneys, increasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressure

Prevents excess water loss by the kidneys, decreasing the blood volume and decreasing blood pressure

Prevents excess water loss by the kidneys, decreasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressure

Increases water loss by the kidneys, increasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressure

Increases water loss by the kidneys, decreasing the blood volume and increasing blood pressureQuestion

20 of 25

Sodium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid is largely regulated by what hormone?

ADH

Erythropoietin

Epinephrine

Renin

AldosteroneQuestion

21 of 25

Why is the excretion of bicarbonate ions by the kidney important?

It maintains adequate urinary output.

It maintains acid base balance of the blood.

It stimulates ADH production.

It stimulates erythropoietin production.

It maintains urine pH between 4.5 to 8.0 range.Question

22 of 25

What is a likely cause for urinary retention in an elderly male?

Loss of neural control over the urinary sphincter

Addison’s Disease

Enlarge prostate gland

Urethritis

Diabetes type IIQuestion

23 of 25

What is the name of the inability to voluntarily control the external urethral sphincter?

Polyuria

Urethritis

Anuria

Incontinence

OliguriaQuestion

24 of 25

What kidney disorder involves clogging of the glomerular filter with antigen antibody complexes?

Nocturia

Diabetes insipidus

Glomerularnephritis

Polycystic disease

Kidney stonesQuestion

25 of 25

Cloudy urine that contains white blood cells is indicative of what disorder?

Urinary tract infection

Addison’s Disease

Diabetes Insipidus

Hypospadias

Polycystic disease

 
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